# DK Goel Solutions Chapter 5 Accounting Ratios

Read below **DK Goel Solutions for Class 12 Chapter 5 Accounting Ratios**. These solutions have been designed based on the latest Class 12 DK Goel Accountancy book used by commerce stream students issued for the current year and the questions given in each chapter.

There are various types of ratios which are generally called accounting ratios which are being used to better understand the financial position of a company.

In this chapter, students will understand the basic concepts of these accounting ratios, their usage, and conditions in which type of accounting ratio can be utilized. This is a very important chapter as accounting ratios are utilized almost in all types of conditions in the future so that you are able to clearly understand the financial situation of a company.

The chapter contains a lot of questions which can be very helpful for Class 12 commerce students of Accountancy and will also help build strong concepts which will be really helpful in your career. These solutions are free and will help you to prepare for Class 12 Accountancy. Just scroll down and read through the answers provided below

## Accounting Ratios DK Goel Class 12 Accountancy Solutions

**Short Answer Questions**

**Q1. **

**Solution 1** The quantitative assessment of a company’s performance is ratio analysis. This lacks the qualitative variables. For instance, he may warrant the credit to be given on the basis of financial statements provided by him while measuring the credit analysis of a consumer requesting credit, but in fact his character and credit worthiness mat is questionable.

**Q2**

**Solution 2**

(a) Liquidity Ratio for analysis for short term debts.

(b) Solvency Ratio for analysis for long term debts.

**Q3. **

**Solution 3** A company’s current ratio of 3:1 means that a company’s current assets are three times the current liabilities. The higher the percentage, the better it is, so it would be easier for the company to pay its existing liabilities. However, for the following reasons, a much higher ratio might be perceived to be detrimental from the point of view of management:

1.) A much higher ratio suggests that because of low performance, inventory may be pilling up.

2.) Due to an ineffective collection policy, significant sums are locked away in trade receivables.

**Q4. **

**Solution 4** Window Dressing: Certain businesses turn to window dressing, i.e., displaying a better position than the one that actually exists, to cover up their poor financial position. They adjust their balance sheet in such a manner that it is possible to mask the essential facts and fact.

**Q5. **

**Solution 5** In attempt to cover up a poor financial situation, some businesses turn to window dressing, i.e., demonstrating a different position than the one that actually exists. They adjust their balance sheet in such a manner that it is possible to mask the essential facts and fact. For instance, the current assets of a company are Rs. 2,00,000 and its current liabilities are Rs. 1,00,000, so the current ratio is 2:1. After this, it purchased goods for Rs. 50,000 for credit in the month of March. If it records the purchases, the current assets will increase to Rs. 2,50,000 and current liabilities will increase to Rs. 1,50,000. As a result, the current ratio will be reduced to 5:3. The company may pass the entry for purchase in the beginning of the next year or may postpone the purchase itself for a few days.

**Q6. Solution 6. **Present Ratio:- The ratio describes the relation between a company’s current assets and current liabilities. The ratio estimation formula is

Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilites)

**Quick Ratio:-** The Fast Ratio shows whether the company is in a position to pay its existing obligations immediately or within a month. As such, by dividing liquid assets (Quick Current Assets) by current liabilities, the quick ratio is calculated:

Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets)/(Current Liabilites)

**Quick Ratio:- **The Fast Ratio shows whether the company is in a position to pay its existing obligations immediately or within a month. As such, by dividing liquid assets (Quick Current Assets) by current liabilities, the quick ratio is calculated:

Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets)/(Current Liabilites)

**Q7. **

**Solution 7** The Fast Ratio is a better test of the company’s short-term financial condition than the current ratio, since it recognizes only certain properties that can quickly and easily be turned into cash. Liquid assets do not involve inventory since it can take a lot of time before it is translated into currency.

**Q8. **

**Solution 8 **Share Capital and Balance & Surplus is found in shareholder accounts.

**Q9. **

**Solution 9 **Equity Share Capital was included in the equity partner portfolio.

**Q10. **

**Solution 10** This ratio illustrates the relationship between long-term debt and funds from lenders. It displays the amount of assets acquired by long-term borrowings as opposed to shareholder capital. To assess the soundness of the company’s long-term financial plans, this ratio is determined.

**Q11. **

**Solution 11 **The higher inventory turnover ratio suggests a fast sale of products. In an organization where the product turnover ratio is high, products may be sold at a low profit margin and the profitability may be very high even then.

A poor inventory turnover ratio means that for such a long time, inventory does not sell easily and stays lying in the godown. This results in higher costs of transportation, the blocking of funds and losses on goods accounts being redundant or capable of un-sale.

**Q12. **

**Solution 12**. Calculation of Trade receivables turnover ratio:-

Total Revenue from Operations for the year (Total Sales) Rs. 2,00,000

Cash Revenue from Operations for the year (Cash Sales) Rs. 40,000

Trade Receivables at the beginning of the year Rs. 20,000

Trade Receivables at the end of the year Rs. 60,000

**Solution:-**

**Working Note:-**

**Q13. **

**Solution 13** I. The management’s liberal and inefficient credit and collection approach would imply that the exchange receivables turnover ratio is too poor. It indicates that more cash is locked-up in exchange receivables, resulting in higher bad debts, increased recovery costs, and even loss of interest on cash receivables attributable to trade type.

II. The higher inventory turnover ratio suggests a fast sale of products. In an organization where the product turnover ratio is high, products may be sold at a low profit margin and the profitability may be very high even then.

**Q14. **

**Solution 14 .**The management’s liberal and inefficient credit and collection approach would imply that the exchange receivables turnover ratio is too poor. It indicates that more cash is locked-up in exchange receivables, resulting in higher bad debts, increased recovery costs, and even loss of interest on cash receivables attributable to trade type.

**Q15. **

**Solution 15.** A high turnover ratio of trade receivables implies the timely reimbursement by trade receivables, however a too high ratio can be the result of management’s stringent credit and recovery policies that may curtail revenue and thereby adversely impact income.

**Q16. **

**Solution 16.** With regard to the provision of depreciation, development of provision for uncertain debts, system of assessment of closing inventory, etc., there may be various accounting practices followed by different businesses. For example, one organization might, on a straight-line basis, follow the strategy of charging depreciation, while on a written-down value system otherwise charges. This contrast makes the accounting ratios incomparable.

**Q17. **

**Solution 17.** The price range continues to be paid over the years, so the ratio of different years will not be compared. For eg, in 2017, one company sold 1,000 machines for Rs. 10 Lakhs; in 2018, it sold 1,000 machines of the same kind again, but the selling price was Rs. 15 Lakhs due to the rising price. On the basis of the percentages, it will be inferred that revenues have increased by 50%, while sales have not increased at all in practical terms. Therefore, in view of market level adjustments, the estimates for the last year must be changed before the ratios for those years are compared.

**Q18. **

**Solution 18 I) **Debt-Equity Ratio:- The relationship between long-term debt and shareholder funds is reflected in this ratio. It displays the amount of assets acquired by long-term borrowings as opposed to shareholder capital. To assess the soundness of the company’s long-term financial plans, this ratio is determined.

The Debt Equity Significance Ratio is determined to determine the company’s ability to satisfy its long-term obligations. A debt-equity ratio of 2:1 is usually considered stable.

**(ii) **Ratio of inventory turnover:- This ratio reveals the relationship between the cost of operational profits for the year and the total inventory retained during the year:

**(iii)** Trade Earned Turnover Ratio:- This ratio reveals the relationship between the Operating Sales loan and the average year-round trade receivables:

**Q19. **

**Solution 19****(i)** Gross Profit Ratio:- This ratio provides a correlation between Gross Profit and Operating Revenue, i.e. Sales of Net. This ratio is measured and seen in proportion. To compute this percentage, the formula is:

**(ii)** Ratio of inventory turnover:- This ratio reveals the relationship between the cost of operational profits for the year and the total inventory retained during the year:

**(iii) **Current Ratio:- The relationship between current assets and a company’s current liabilities is clarified in this Ratio.

**Q20. **

**Solution 20**

(i) Debt-Equity Ratio:- This ratio illustrates the relationship between long-term debt and funds from lenders. It displays the amount of assets acquired by long-term borrowings as opposed to shareholder capital. To assess the soundness of the company’s long-term financial plans, this ratio is determined.

**(ii)** Operating Ratio:- This ratio calculates the percentage of the cost of operational revenue and operating costs of a company relative to the operating income:

**(iii)** Trade Received Turnover Ratio:- The relationship between credit income from operations and average exchange receivables during the year is demonstrated by this ratio:

**Q21. **

**Solution 21****(i) Gross Profit Ratio:-** This ratio provides a correlation between Gross Profit and Operating Revenue, i.e. Sales of Net. This ratio is measured and seen in proportion. To compute this percentage, the formula is:

**(ii) Quick Ratio:-** The Fast Ratio shows whether the company is in a position to pay its existing obligations immediately or within a month. As such, by dividing liquid assets by current liabilities, the rapid ratio is calculated:

**(iii) Inventory Turnover Ratio =** This ratio reveals the relation between the cost of operational sales for the year and the average inventory carried during that year:

**Numerical Questions:-**

**Question 1. **

**Solution1**

Current Assets= Inventories + Trade Receivables + Current Inventories + Cash & cash equivalents

=Rs. 70,000 + Rs. 90,000 + Rs. 35,000 + Rs. 5,000

= Rs. 2,00,000

Current liabilities = Trade Payables + Short term Borrowings + Provision for tax + Outstanding Expenses

= Rs. 46,000 + Rs. 20,000 + Rs. 10,000 + Rs. 4,000

= RS. 80,000

**Question 2. **

**Solution2**

Current Assets= Current Investments + Inventories (except loose tools) + Trade Receivables + Short term loans & Advances + Prepaid Insurance + Advance Payment of Tax + cash and cash equivalents

=Rs. 80,000 + Rs. 4,10,000 + Rs. 3,30,000 + Rs. 10,000 + Rs. 18,000 + Rs. 20,000 + Rs. 28,000

= Rs. 8,96,000

Current liabilities = Trade Payables + Short term Borrowings + short term provisions + Other Current Liabilities

= Rs. 1,80,000 + Rs. 60,000 + Rs. 25,000 + Rs. 15,000

= RS. 2,80,000

Liquid Assets: Current Assets – Inventories – Prepaid Insurance – Advance Payment of Tax

= Rs. 8,96,000 – Rs. 4,10,000 – Rs. 18,000 – Rs. 20,000

= Rs. 4,48,000

**Question 3. **

**Solution3.**

Current Assets= Inventories + Trade Receivables + Short term Investments + Payment in Advance + Cash and cash equivalents + Accrued Income

=Rs. 2,50,000 + Rs. 1,30,000 + Rs. 30,000 + Rs. 20,000 + Rs. 40,000 + Rs. 10,000

= Rs. 4,80,000

Current liabilities = Short term Borrowings + Short term provisions + Trade Payables + expenses payable

= Rs. 20,000 + Rs. 30,000 + Rs. 95,000 + Rs. 5,000

= RS. 1,50,000

Liquid Assets: Current Assets – Inventories – Payment in advance

= Rs. 4,80,000 – Rs. 2,50,000 – Rs. 20,000

= Rs.2,10,000

Comment: The short term financial position of the company is quite satisfactory because its current ratio is 3;2;1, which is more than the ideal current ratio of 2:1. Liquid ratio of the company is 1.4:1, which is also more than the ideal liquid ratio of 1:1.

Therefore, it can be said that the company is in a position to pat its current liabilities instantly.

**Question 4 **

**Solution 4**

Current Assets= Cash and cash equivalents + Trade Receivables + Short term Investments + Inventory of raw Materials + Inventory of Finished Goods + Prepaid Expenses

=Rs. 10,000 + Rs. 71,000 + Rs. 20,000 + Rs. 80,000 + Rs. 60,000 + Rs. 9,000

= Rs. 2,50,000

Current liabilities =Trade Payables + Provision for Taxation +outstanding Expenses

= Rs. 1,00,000 + Rs. 25,000 + Rs. 5,000

= RS. 1,30,000

Liquid Assets: Cash & Cash Equivalents +Trade Receivables + Short Term Investments

= Rs. 10,000 – Rs. 71,000 – Rs. 20,000

= Rs.1,01,000

Comment: The ideal current ratio should be 2:1. But in this case the current ratio is 1.92:1 which is less than the ideal ratio. Therefore, it can be said that the short-term financial position of the company is not satisfactory.

The ideal quick ratio should be 1:1. But in this case the quick ratio is .78: 1, hence, the short- term financial position cannot be said to be satisfactory.

**Question 5.**

**Solution 5**

Current Assets= Total Assets – Non- Current Assets

=Rs. 40,00,000 – Rs. 22,00,000

= Rs. 18,00,000

Current liabilities = Total Assets – Share Capital – Reserve & Surplus – Non-Current Liabilities

= Rs. 40,00,000 + Rs. 24,00,000 + Rs. 3,00,000 – Rs. 8,00,000

= RS. 5,00,000

**Question 6. Calculate Current Ratio from the following information:**

Solution6

Current Assets= Total Assets – Fixed Assets – Non- Current Investments

=Rs. 12,00,000 – Rs. 6,00,000 – Rs. 1,00,000 – Rs. 1,40,000

= Rs. 3,60,000

Total Assets will be equal to the Total of Equity & Liabilities Hence,

Current liabilities = Total Assets – Shareholder’s Funds – Non-Current Liabilities

= Rs. 12,00,000 + Rs. 8,50,000 + Rs. 1,10,000

= Rs. 2,40,000

**Question 7(A) **

**Solution7(A)** Current Ratio as given in the question is 2:1. In order to understand the question in a simple manner, it may be assured that current assets are Rs. 2,00,000 and current liabilities are Rs. 1,00,000.

- Purchase of goods on Credit: Suppose, goods for Rs. 25,000 is purchased on credit, the revised current ratio would be:

the current ratio is reduced.

Purchase of goods against Cheque: Suppose, goods for Rs. 25,000 is purchased for cash, the revised current ratio would be:

the current ratio has not changed.

l. Sale of Goods coasting Rs. 50,000 for Rs. 60,000 on Credit: the effect of the above will be decrease in Inventory by Rs. 50,000 and increase in Trade Receivables by Rs. 60,000. Thus, the revised current ratio would be:

the current ratio is improved.

**l.** To sell a fixed asset at a slight loss: Sale of a fixed assets results in the increase in Cash balance even through the asset is sold at a slight loss. Suppose the fixed asset worth Rs. 50,000 is sold at a loss Rs. 1,500 i.e., at Rs. 48,500, the revised current ratio would be:

the current ratio is improved.

**l**. To borrow money on a promissory note (B/P): Borrowing money on the basis of a promissory note increases cash on one hand and increases B/P on the other hand. Thus, if Rs. 40,000 are borrowed on the basis of a promissory, then the revised current ratio would be:

the current ratio is reduced.

**IV** To give a promissory note a creditor: Suppose a promissory note for ES. 25,000 is given to a creditor. Its effect would be an increased in B/P by RS. 25,000 and decreased in the trade payables by RS. 25,000. Thus the revised ratio would ne:

the current ratio has not is reduced.

**Question 7(B)**

**Solution7(B)**

Current Ratio as given in the question 2.5:2. Hence, it may be assured that Current Assets are Rs. 2,50,000 and current Liabilities are RS. 1,00,000.

**i. **Payment to trade payables: Suppose, trade payables amounting to RS. 25,000 are repaid, the revised current ratio would be:

The current ratio is improved.

**i. **Sell machinery against cheque: Suppose a machinery is solid for Rs. 50,000, the revised current ratio would be:

The current ratio is improved.

**ii. Sale of inventory at loss against Cheque:** Suppose, inventory costing 50,000 is sold for RS. 40,000 ON credit, the revised current ratio would be:

The current ratio is reduced.

**iii. Cash collected from trade receivables: **Suppose cash amounting to Rs. 50,000 is collected from received trade received, the revised current ratio would be:

**iv.** B/P dishonored: Suppose, a B/R for RS. 50,000 is dishonored, it will result in decrease in B/R and increases in trade receivables. Hence, the revised current ratio would bd:

**Issue of shares: Suppose: **shares for Rs. 1,00,000 are issued for cash:

The current ratio is improved.

**vi. Issue of shares against the purchase of a building:** Suppose, share of RS. 1,00,000 are issued against the purchase of Building. It will result increase in Capital on the one hand and increase in building on the other hand Since there is no either on Current assets or a current liabilities, the current ratio would not change.**vii. Redemption (Repayment) of Debentures:** Debentures, which are to be redeemed are included in current liabilities. Hence. The current assets as well as current liabilities will be reduced. Suppose, debentures for RRs. 50,000 are redeemed:

The current ratio is improved.

**Question 8. **

**Solution8 **Statement showing the effect of various transactions on Current Ratio:

**Question 9.**

**Solution 9 Statement showing the effect of various transactions on Current Ratio;**

**Question 10.**

**Solution10:**The influence of different transactions on the Current Ratio is seen in this statement:

**Question 11. **

**Solution 11:**The influence of various transactions on the Quick Ratio is seen in this sentence:-

**Question 12. **

**Solution 12Calculation of current ratio:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio = (RS.3,12,000)/(Rs.1,20,000)

Current Ratio = 2.6:1

So, the Current Ratio is 2.6 : 1.

**Below is the Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current liabilities = Total debt – Long term Debt

Current liabilities = Rs. 2,00,000 – Rs. 80,000

Current liabilities = Rs. 1,20,000

**Below is the Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Working Capital + Current Liabilities

Current Assets = Rs. 1,92,000 + Rs. 1,20,000

Current liabilities = Rs. 3,12,000

**Question 13. **

**Solution 13:Calculation of current ratio:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio = (RS.7,20,000)/(Rs.2,40,000)

Current Ratio = 3:1

So, the Current Ratio is 3 : 1.

**Below is the Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current liabilities = Trade Payables – Bank Overdraft

Current liabilities = Rs. 2,00,000 – Rs. 40,000

Current liabilities = Rs. 2,40,000

**Below is the Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Working Capital + Current Liabilities

Current Assets = Rs. 4,80,000 + Rs. 2,40,000

Current Assets = Rs. 7,20,000

**Question 14. **

**Solution14.Calculation of current ratio:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio = (Rs. 6,00,000)/(Rs. 1,20,000)

Current Ratio = 5:1

So, the Current Ratio is 5:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current liabilities = Current Assets – Working Capital

Current liabilities = Rs. 6,00,000 – Rs. 4,80,000

Current liabilities = Rs. 2,20,000

**Question 15 (A)**

**Solution 15 (A)By the formula of calculation of current ratio:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Current Liabilities = (Current Assets)/(Current Ratio)

Current Liabilities = (Rs.3,60,000)/2.4

Current Liabilities = Rs. 1,50,000

**Below is the Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Rs. 4,10,000 – Rs. 50,000

Current Assets = Rs. 3,60,000

**Below is the Calculation of Working Capital:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Working Capital = Rs. 3,60,000 – Rs. 1,50,000

Working Capital = Rs. 2,10,000

**Question 15 (B)**

**Solution 15 (B)By the formula of calculation of current ratio:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Current Liabilities = (Current Assets)/(Current Ratio)

Current Liabilities = (Rs.7,50,000)/3

Current Liabilities = Rs. 2,50,000

**Below is the Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Rs. 7,20,000 – Rs. 30,000

Current Assets = Rs. 7,50,000

**Below is the Calculation of Working Capital:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Working Capital = Rs. 7,50,000 – Rs. 2,50,000

Working Capital = Rs. 5,00,000

**Question 16 (A)**

**Solution 16 (A)By the formula of calculation of current ratio:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

It is given that,

Current Ratio = 2,

Current Liabilities = Rs. 1,60,000

Putting the values in formula:-

2 = (Current Assets)/(Rs.1,60,000)

Current Assets = Rs. 1,60,000 × 2

Current Assets = Rs. 3,20,000

So, the Current Assets is Rs. 3,20,000.

**Calculation of Quick ratio:-**Quick Ratio = (liquid Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

It is given that,

Quick Ratio=1.5

Current Liabilities = Rs. 1,60,000

1.5 = (Quick Assets)/1,60,000

Quick Assets = Rs. 1,60,000 × 1.5

Quick Assets = Rs. 2,40,000

So, the Quick Assets is Rs. 2,40,000

**Calculation of Inventory:-**Inventory = Current Assets – liquid Assets

Inventory = Rs. 3,20,000 – Rs. 2,40,000

Inventory = Rs. 80,000

**Question 16.(B)**

**Solution 16 (B)By the formula of current ratio we get:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

It is given that,

Current Ratio =2.5

Current Assets = Rs. 17,00,000

2.5 = (Rs.17,00,000)/(Current Liabilities)

Current liabilities = (Rs.17,00,000)/2.5

Current liabilities = Rs. 17,00,000 × 10/25

Current liabilities = Rs. 6,80,000

So, the current liabilities are Rs. 6,80,000.

**By the formula of current ratio we get:-**Quick Ratio = (Quick Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

It is given that,

Quick Ratio = 0.95

Current Liabilities = Rs. 6,80,000

0.95 = (Quick Assets)/(Rs.6,80,000)

Quick Assets = Rs. 6,80,000 × 0.95

Quick Assets = Rs. 6,46,000

**Calculation of Inventor:-**Inventory = Current Assets – liquid Assets

Inventory = Rs. 17,00,000 – Rs. 6,46,000

Inventory = Rs. 10,54,000

**Question 16(C)**

**Solution 16 (C)(i) Calculation of Woking Capital:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current liabilities

It is given that,

Current Ratio = 2.8: 1

Working capital Ratio = 2.8 – 1 = 1.8

So, the Working Capital is 1.8

Current Assets = 2.8

**Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = 2.8/1.8 × 5,40,000

Current Assets = Rs. 8,40,000

So, the current assets of the company is Rs. 8,40,000.

**(ii) Below is the Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = Current Assets – Working Capital

Current Liabilities = Rs. 8,40,000 – Rs. 5,40,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 3,00,000

So, the current Liabilities of the company is Rs. 3,00,000.

**(iii) Below is the Calculation of Quick Ratio:-**Quick Ratio = (liquid Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Quick Ratio = 5,10,000/3,00,000

Quick Ratio = 1.7:1

Calculation of Liquid Assets:-

Liquid Assets = Current Assets – Inventory

Liquid Assets = Rs. 8,40,000 – Rs. 3,30,000

Liquid Assets = Rs. 5,10,000

**Question 17**

**Solution 17Calculation of Working Capital:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

It is given that,

Current Ratio = 4:1

Current ratio to the working capital is 4 – 1 = 3

Working Capital is 3, Current Assets = 4

So, the ratio of working capital and current assets is

Below is the Calculation of Current Assets:-

Current Assets = 4/3 × Rs. 1,80,000

Current Assets = Rs. 2,40,000

**Below is the Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = Current Assets – Working Capital

Current Liabilities = Rs. 2,40,000 – Rs. 1,80,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 60,000

It is given that,

Quick Ratio= 1.2,

Current Liabilities = Rs. 60,000

Quick Ratio = (liquid Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

1.2 = (liquid Assets)/(RS.60,000)

Liquid Assets = Rs. 60,000 × 1.2

Liquid Assets = Rs. 72,000

**Calculation of Inventory:-**Inventory = Current Assets – Liquid Assets

Inventory = Rs. 2,40,000 – Rs. 72,000 = Rs. 1,68,000

**Question 18. **

**Solution18Calculation of current ratio:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

2.4 = (Rs.1,81,10,400)/(Current Liabilities)

Current Liabilities = 75,46,000

It is given that,

Current Ratio = 2.4

Current Assets = Rs. 1,81,10,400

Liquid Ratio = (liquid Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Liquid Ratio = 1,01,87,100/75,46,000

Liquid Ratio = 1.35:1.

**Calculation of Liquid Assets:-**Liquid Assets = Current Assets – Inventories

Liquid Assets = Rs. 1,81,10,400 – Rs. 79,23,300

Liquid Assets = Rs. 1,01,87,100

**Comment:**The company’s short-term financial situation is adequate, since its liquid ratio is 1.35:1, which is greater than the optimal ratio of 1:1.

**Question 19. **

**Solution 19**It is given that,

Quick ratio = 1.5

Current Liabilities=40,000;

Formula of Quick Ratio:-

Quick Ratio = (liquid Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

1.5 = (liquid Assets)/(Rs.40,000)

Liquid Assets = Rs. 40,000 × 1.5 = Rs. 60,000

Inventory – Current Assets- Liquid Assets

Inventory = Rs. 1,00,000 – Rs. 60,000

Inventory = Rs. 40,000.

So, the value of Inventory is 40,000.

**Question 20. **

**Solution 20**It is given that,

Quick ratio = 2

Liquid assets=8,00,000;

Quick Ratio = (liquid Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

2= (Rs.8,00,000)/(Current Liabilities)

Current Liabilities = (Rs.8,00,000)/2

Current Liabilities = Rs. 4,00,000

**Below is the Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Liquid Assets + Inventory

Current Assets = Rs. 8,00,000 + Rs. 2,00,000

Current Assets = Rs. 10,00,000

**Calculation of Current Ratio is :-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio = 10,00,000/4,00,000

Current Ratio = 2.5:1

**Question 21. **

**Solution21**It is given that,

Current Ratio is 4.5

Quick ratio is 3

Inventory is the difference between the current and quick ratios.

Inventory = 4.5 – 3

Inventory = 1.5

If Inventory is 1.5 and Current Assets = 4.5 then the ratio of current assets and inventory is

Current Assets = 4.5/1.5

Inventory = 72,000

Current Assets = 4.5/1.5 × 72,000

Current Assets = Rs. 2,16,000

So, the Current Assets is Rs. 2,16,000

**Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = (Rs.2,16,000)/4.5

Current Liabilities = Rs. 48,000.

So, the value of Current Liabilities is Rs. 48,000.

**Question 22.(A)**

**Solution 22 (A)Calculation of Quick Assets:-**Quick Assets = Current Assets – Inventory – Prepaid Expenses

Quick Assets = Rs. 85,000 – Rs. 22,000 – Rs. 3,000

Quick Assets = Rs. 60,000

**Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = Current Assets – working Capital

Current Liabilities = Rs. 85,000 -Rs. 45,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 40,000

**Computation of Quick Ratio:-**Quick Ratio = (Quick Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Quick Ratio = (Rs.60,000)/(Rs.40,000)

Quick Ratio = 1.5:1.

**Question 22.(B)**

**Solution 22 (B):Calculation of current ratio:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio = (Rs. 2,00,000)/(Rs.450,000)

Current Ratio = 4:1.

So, the current ratio is 4:1.

**Calculation of Current Assets:**Current Assets = Quick Assets – Inventory – Prepaid Expenses

Current Assets = Rs. 90,000 – Rs. 1,08,000 – Rs. 2,000

Current Assets = Rs. 2,00,000

**Below is the Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = Current Assets – Working Capital

Current Liabilities = Rs. 2,00,000 -Rs. 1,50,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 50,000

**Question 23. **

**Solution23.Calculation of Liquid ratio:-**Liquid Ratio = (Liquid Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Liquid Ratio = (Rs. 7,20,000)/(Rs.6,00,000)

Liquid Ratio = 1.2

So, the Liquid Ratio is 1.2.

**Below is the Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = Total debt – Long term Debt

Current Liabilities = Rs. 16,00,000 – Rs. 10,00,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 6,00,000

**Below is the Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Current Liabilities + working Capital

Current Assets = Rs. 6,00,000 -Rs. 4,80,000

Current Assets = Rs. 10,80,000

**Below is the Calculation of Liquid Assets:-**Liquid Assets = Current Assets – Inventory – prepaid Insurance

Liquid Assets = Rs. 10,80,000 – Rs. 3,40,000 – Rs. 20,00

Liquid Assets = Rs. 7,20,000

**Question 24 **

**Solution24**It if given that the Current Ratio of the company is 2.

Payment of existing liabilities would result in a decrease of both current assets and current liabilities.

Suppose the amount of current liabilities is = x

Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio = (Rs.32,00,000-x)/(Rs.20,00,000-x)

2 = (Rs.32,00,000-x)/(Rs.20,00,000-x)

2 × (Rs. 20,00,000-x) = Rs. 32,00,000-x

Rs. 40,00,000 – 2 x=32,00,000- x

Rs. 40,00,000 – 32,00,000=2 x- x

8,00,000 = x

To reach a Current Ratio of 2:1, current liabilities to the extent of Rs. 8,00,000 should be charged.

**Question 25. **

**Solution25**It is given that the current Ratio of the company is 2.5 and Current Assets is 5,00,000.

**Calculation of Current Ratio:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

2.5 = (Rs.5,00,000)/(Current Liabilities)

Current Liabilities = (Rs.5,00,000)/2.5

Current Liabilities = Rs. 2,00,000

**Comment:-**Current Assets must be bought on credit in order to reduce the Current Ratio. However, an increase in existing assets on credit is followed by an increase in current liabilities. Assume that the volume of current assets to be purchased is x. Following the purchase, the acquirer has Existing Assets of Rs. x on credit.

Current Assets = Rs. 5,00,000 + x

Current liabilities = Rs. 2,00,000 + x

Current ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

2 = (Rs. 5,00,000+x )/( Rs. 2,00,000+x )

Rs. 4,00,000 + 2x = Rs. 5,00,000 + x

2x-x = Rs. 1,00,000

x = Rs. 1,00,000

**Comment:-**To sustain a Current Ratio of 2:1, current assets worth Rs. 1,00,000 should be purchased on credit.

**Question 26. **

**Solution 26:Calculation of Debt-Equity Ratio:-**Debt- Equity Ratio = (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Debt Equity Ratio = (Rs.2,60,000 )/( Rs.4,60,000 )

Debt Equity Ratio = 0.57:1.

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 0.57:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Long term Debts:-**Long term Debts = Long term Borrowings + Long term Provisions

Long term Debts = Rs. 2,00,000 + Rs. 60,000 = Rs. 2,60,000

**Below is the Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Shareholder’s Funds = Equity Share Capital + Preference Share Capital + Reserve – Profit & Loss Balance

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 3,00,000 + Rs. 50,000 + Rs. 1,60,000 – Rs. 50,000

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 4,60,000

**Point for Students:-**Other formula of Debt- Equity Ratio is (Debt )/( Equity )

**Question 27. **

**Solution 27:Calculation of Debt-Equity Ratio:-**Debt- Equity Ratio = (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Debt Equity Ratio = (Rs.9,52,000 )/( Rs.11,20,000 )

Debt Equity Ratio = 0.85:1.

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 0.85:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Long term Debts:-**Long term Debts = 8% Debentures + 10% Long term loan + Long term Provisions

Long term Debts = Rs. 5,00,000 + Rs. 3,40,000 + Rs.1,12,000

Long term Debts = Rs. 9,52,000

**Below is the Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Shareholder’s Funds = Share Capital + Capital Reserve + General Reserve + Profit & Loss Balance

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 6,00,000 + Rs. 3,20,000 + Rs. 60,000 + Rs. 1,40,000

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 11,20,000

**Point for Students:-**Other formula of Debt- Equity Ratio is (Debt )/( Equity )

**Question 28. **

**Solution 28:(i) The Debt-Equity Ratio can be used to measure a company’s long-term financial condition.**Debt- Equity Ratio = (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Debt Equity Ratio = (Rs.50,00,000 )/( Rs.25,00,000 )

Debt Equity Ratio = 2:1.

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 2:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Long term Debts:-**Long term Debts = Long term Borrowings + Public Deposits

Long term Debts = Rs. 10,00,000 + Rs. 15,00,000

Long term Debts = Rs. 50,00,000

**Below is the Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Shareholder’s Funds = Share Capital + Reserve and Surplus

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 10,00,000 + Rs. 15,00,000

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 25,00,000

**(ii) The short-term financial health of an organisation can be determined by measuring:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/( Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio = (16,00,000 )/( 10,00,000)

Current Ratio = 1.6 : 1

So, the Current Ratio is 1.6 : 1

**Point for Students:-**Other formula of Debt- Equity Ratio is (Debt )/( Equity )

**Question 29. **

**Solution29Calculation of Debt-Equity Ratio:-**Debt-Equity Ratio = (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Debt-Equity Ratio =(Rs.17,50,000 )/( Rs.12,50,000)

Debt-Equity Ratio = 1.4 : 1.

So, the Debt-Equity Ratio is 1.4 : 1.

**Below is the Calculation of Long term Debts:-**Long term Debts = Long term Borrowings + Long term Provisions

Long term Debts = Rs. 16,00,000 + Rs. 1,50,000

Long term Debts = Rs. 17,50,000

**Below is the Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Shareholder’s Funds = Non-Current Assets + Working Capital – Non- Current Liabilities

Non- Current Assets = Tangible Fixed Assets + Intangible Fixed Assets

Non- Current Assets = Rs. 24,50,000 + Rs. 3,00,000

Non- Current Assets = Rs. 27,50,000

**Below is the Calculation of Working Capital:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Working Capital = Rs. 3,34,000 – Rs. 84,000

Working Capital = Rs. 2,50,000

**Long-term obligations are referred to as non-current liabilities:-**Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 27,50,000 + Rs. 2,50,000 – Rs. 17,50,000

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 12,50,000

**Question 30. **

**Solution 30Calculation of Debt-Equity Ratio:-**Debt Equity Ratio = (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Debt Equity Ratio = (Rs.1,20,000 )/( Rs.80,000 )

Debt Equity Ratio = 1.5:1.

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 1.5:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Long term Debts:-**Long Term Debt = Total Debts- Current Liabilities

Long Term Debt = Rs. 1,50,000 + Rs. 30,000

Long Term Debt = Rs. 1,20,000

**Below is the Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Shareholder’s Funds =Total Assets + Total debt

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 2,30,000 + Rs. 1,50,000

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 80,000

**Point in Mind:-**The relationship between long-term debts and shareholder funds is represented by this ratio. It displays the percentage of funds acquired by long-term borrowings as opposed to shareholder funds. This ratio is used to decide a company’s ability to fulfil long-term obligations. A debt-to-equity ratio of 2:1 is commonly regarded as safe.

**Question 31. **

**Solution 31:**Debt Equity Ratio =(Debt )/( Equity ) or (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder’ s Funds)

Since the Debt – Equity Ratio in the above issue is 1:2, it is fair to conclude that long-term loans total Rs. 1,00,000 and share holders’ fund shares total Rs. 2,00,000.

**(i) Issue of Equity Shares: **If Rs. 1,00,000 worth of equity shares are released, the shareholder’s funds will increase to Rs. 2,00,000 + Rs. 1,00,000 = Rs. 3,00,000. As a result, the updated ratio would be as follows:

(Rs.1,00,000 )/( Rs.3,00,000 ) = .33:1

The ratio was 1:2 or (.5:1) before the issue of equity shares, but it has now been reduced to.33:1, suggesting that the ratio has decreased. As a result, it is possible to assume that an increase in shareholder assets lowered the ratio.

**(ii) Cash Received from Trade Receivables:** Only the cash and trade receivables will be impacted by obtaining cash from trade receivables. As a result, the debt equity ratio will not adjust because neither the long-term debt nor the shareholder funds are affected.

**(iii) Sale of goods on cash Basis:** Only the inventories and cash would be impacted by products exchanged for cash. As a result, the debt-to-equity ratio will not adjust because neither the long-term obligations nor the Shareholders’ Funds are affected.

**(iv) Repayment of long term Borrowings:** If a long-term loan of Rs. 50,000 is repaid, the Long-Term Debts will be reduced by Rs. 50,000, leaving the overall debt at Rs. 1,00,000 – Rs. 50,000 = Rs. 50,000. As a result, the new ratio would be:

(Rs.50,000 )/( Rs.2,00,000 ) =.25:1.

Prior to the repayment of long-term debt, the ratio was 1:2 (.5:1), but it is now.25:1. It signifies a decline in the ratio.

**(v) Purchase of Goods on credit: **Only inventories and trade payables would be impacted by products bought on credit. As a result, the debt-to-equity ratio will not adjust because neither the long-term obligations nor the Shareholders’ Funds are affected.

**Question 32. **

**Solution 32:**The influence of various transactions on the Debt-Equity Ratio is shown in the following table:-

**Question 33. **

**Solution 33:Calculation of Debt-Equity Ratio:-**Total Assets to Debt ratio = (Total assets )/( Debt )

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = 35,00,000/( 28,00,000)

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = 1.25 : 1

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 1.25 : 1.

**Below is the Calculation of Long term Debts:-**Long term debts = total Debts- Creditors – Bills payables- Short term Borrowings – Outstanding Exp.

Long term debts = Rs.32,00,000 – Rs.2,50,000 – Rs.20,000 – Rs.1,00,000 – Rs. 30,000

Long term debts = Rs. 28,00,000

**Question 34. **

**Solution 34.Calculation of Debt-Equity Ratio:-**Total Assets to Debt ratio = (total assets )/( Debt (i.e.,Long Term Debts) )

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = 56,00,000/( 18,00,000)

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = 3.11:1

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 3.11:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Long term Debts:-**Total Term debts = Total Debts- Trade Payables – Bank Overdraft

Total Term debts = Rs.24,00,000 – Rs.5,60,000 – Rs.40,000

Total Term debts = Rs. 18,00,000

**Below is the Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Total Assets = Shareholder’s Funds + Total Debts

Total Assets = Rs. 32,00,000 + Rs. 24,00,000

Total Assets = Rs. 56,00,000

**Working Note:-**Since Reserve and Surplus are already included in Shareholder’s Fund, they will be overlooked.

**Question 35. **

**Solution 35Calculation of Debt-Equity Ratio:-**Total Assets to Debt ratio = (total assets )/( Debt (i.e.,Long Term Debts) )

Total Assets = (Rs.73,60,000)/( 40,00,000)

Total Assets = 1.84:1

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 1.84:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Long term Debts:-**Long Term debts = 8% debentures + Loan from Bank

Long Term debts = Rs.30,00,000 – Rs.10,00,000

Long Term debts = Rs. 40,00,000

**Below is the Calculation of Total Assets:-**Total Assets = Shareholder’s Funds (i.e., Share Capital + Reserve and Surplus) + Total Debts (i.e., 8% Debentures + Loan from Bank + Short term Borrowings)

Total Assets = Rs. 20,00,000 + Rs. 5,00,000 + Rs. 30,00,000 + Rs. 10,00,000 + Rs. 8,60,000

Total Assets = Rs. 73,60,000

**Working Note:-**The surplus, i.e., the balance in the profit and loss statement, would be overlooked since it is already contained in the Reserve ad Surplus.

**Question 36. **

**Solution 36:Calculation of Debt-Equity Ratio:-**Total Assets to Debt ratio = (Total assets )/( Debt )

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = 63,00,000/( 35,00,000)

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = 1.8:1

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 0.57:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Long term Debts:-**Total Term debts = Total Debts – current Liabilities

Total Term debts = Rs.40,00,000 – Rs.5,00,000

Total Term debts = Rs. 35,00,000

**Below is the Calculation of Total Assets:-**Total Assets = Total debt + Share Capital + Reserve and Surplus

Total Assets = Rs. 40,00,000 + Rs.15,00,000 + Rs. 8,00,000

Total Assets = Rs. 63,00,000

**Point in Mind:-**The relationship between long-term debts and shareholder funds is represented by this ratio. It displays the percentage of funds acquired by long-term borrowings as opposed to shareholder funds. This ratio is used to decide a company’s ability to fulfil long-term obligations. A debt-to-equity ratio of 2:1 is commonly regarded as safe.

**Question 37.**

**Solution37.Calculation of Total Assets to Debt ratio:-**Total Assets to Debt ratio = (Total assets )/( Debt )

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = 68,40,000/( 24,00,000)

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = 2.85 : 1

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 2.85 : 1.

**Below is the Calculation of Capital Employed:-**Capital Employed = Shareholder’s funds + Long term debts

Rs. 60,00,000 = Rs.20,00,000 + Rs.16,00,000 + Long term debts

Long term debts = Rs. 24,00,000

**Below is the Calculation of Total Assets:-**Total Assets = Shareholder’s funds + Long term debts + Current liabilities

Total Assets = Rs. 20,00,000 + Rs.16,00,000 + Rs. 24,00,000 + Rs. 8,00,000 + Rs. 40,000

Total Assets = Rs. 68,40,000

**Point in Mind:**Shareholder funds includes = Share Capital + Reserve and Surplus

Current Liabilities includes = Trade Payables + Outstanding Exp.

Shareholders Fund includes = Share Capital + Reserve and Surplus

**Question 38. **

**You are required to work out the following ratios:-**(i) Debt- Equity Ratio; (ii) Total Assets; (iii) Proprietary Ratio; (iv) Quick Ratio

**Solution38(i) Calculation of Debt-Equity Ratio:-**Debt Equity Ratio = (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Debt Equity Ratio = (Rs.1,20,000 )/( Rs. 4,68,000 )

Debt Equity Ratio = .26:1.

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 0.26:1.

**Below is the Long term Debts:-**Long Term Debt = 9% Debentures = Rs. 1,20,000

**Below is the Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Shareholder’s Funds = Share Capital + General Reserve + Profit & Loss Balance

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 3,20,000 + Rs. 1,00,000 + Rs. 48,000

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 4,68,000

**(ii) Calculation of Total Assets to Debt Ratio:-**Total Assets to Debt Ratio = (Total assets )/( Lonf Term Debt )

Total Assets or Debt Ratio = (Rs.8,92,000 )/( Rs.1,20,000)

Total Assets or Debt Ratio = 7.43:1

So, the Total Assets to Debts Ratio is 0.26:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Total Assets:-**Total Assets = Non-Current Assets + Current Assets

Total Assets = Rs. 3,60,000 + Rs. 1,76,000 + Rs. 3,28,000 + Rs. 28,000

Total Assets = Rs. 8,92,000

**(iii) Calculation of Proprietary Ratio:-**Proprietary Ratio = (Equity )/( Total assets ) or (Shareholder^’ sFunds )/( Total assets )

Proprietary Ratio = (Rs.4,68,000 )/( Rs.8,92,000 )

Proprietary Ratio =.5247 or 52.47 %

So, the Proprietary Ratio is 0.26:1.

**(iv) Calculation of Quick Ratio:-**Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/( Current Liabilities )

Quick Ratio = (RS.3,56,000 )/( Rs.3,04,000)

Quick Ratio = 1.17:1

So, the Quick Ratio is 0.57:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Liquid Ratio:-**Liquid Assets = Trade Receivables + Cash & Cash Equivalents

Liquid Assets = Rs. 3,28,000 + Rs. 28,000

Liquid Assets = Rs. 3,56,000

**Below is the Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current liabilities = Rs. 3,04,000

**Question 39. **

**Solution 39:(i) Calculation of Debt-Equity Ratio:-**Debt Equity Ratio = (Debt )/( Equity ) or (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Debt Equity Ratio = 25,00,000/( 44,00,000)

Debt Equity Ratio = 0.568 : 1

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 0.568:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Long term Debts:-**Long Term Debt = 5% Debentures + Loan from IDBI

Long Term Debt = Rs. 15,00,000 + Rs. 10,00,000

Long Term Debt = Rs. 25,00,000

**Below is the Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Shareholder’s Funds = Equity Shares Capital + Reserves + P & L Balance

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 28,00,000 + Rs. 12,00,000 + Rs. 4,00,000

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 44,00,000

**(ii) Calculation of Proprietary Ratio:-**Proprietary Ratio = (Shareholder^’ sFunds )/( Total assets )

Proprietary Ratio = (Rs.44,00,000 )/( Rs.80,00,000 )

Proprietary Ratio = .55 or 55%

**Below is the Calculation of Total Assets:-**Total Assets = Goodwill + Other Non-Current Assets + Current Assets

Total Assets = Rs. 6,00,000 + Rs. 46,00,000 + Rs. 28,00,000

Total Assets = Rs. 80,00,000

**(iii) Calculation of Total Assets to Debt Ratio:-**Total Assets to Debt Ratio = (Total Assets )/( Long Term Debts )

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = (Rs. 80,00,000 )/( Rs. 25,00,000)

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = 3.2:1

So, the Total Assets to Debt Ratio is 0.57:1.

**Point in Mind:-**The Other formula for Proprietary ratio is (Equity )/( Total assets )

**Question 40.**

**Solution 40(i) Calculation of Debt Equity Ratio:-**Debt Equity Ratio= (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Debt Equity Ratio = (Rs.9,25,000 )/( Rs.6,75,000 )

Debt Equity Ratio = 1.37

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 1.37:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Long term Debts:-**Long Term Debt = Long term borrowings + Long term provisions

Long Term Debt = Rs. 7,00,000 + Rs. 2,25,000

Long Term Debt = Rs. 9,25,000

**Below is the Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Shareholder’s Funds = Non-Current Assets + Working Capital – Non-current Liabilities

Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Working Capital = Rs. 5,40,000 – Rs. 1,40,000

Working Capital = Rs. 4,00,000

**Below is the Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 12,00,000 + Rs. 4,00,000 – Rs. 9,25,000

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 6,75,000

**(ii) Calculation of Total Assets to Debt Ratio:-**Total Assets to Debt Ratio = (Total Assets )/( Debts )

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = (Rs. 17,40,000 )/( Rs. 9,25,000)

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = 1.88:1

So, the total assets to debt ratio is 1.88:1

**Calculation of Total Assets:-**Total Assets = Non-Current Assets + Current Assets

Total Assets = Rs. 12,00,000 + Rs. 5,40,000

Total Assets = Rs. 17,40,000

**(iii) Calculation of Proprietary Ratio:-**Proprietary Ratio = (Proprietar^’ sFunds )/( total Assets )

Proprietary Ratio = (RS.6,75,000 )/( Rs.17,40,000) × 100

Proprietary Ratio = 38.79 %

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 38.79%.

**Point in Mind:-**The other formula of Debt Equity Ratio is (Debt )/( Equity )

**Question 41. **

**Solution 41Calculation of Proprietary Ratio:-**Proprietary Ratio = (shareholder^’ s Funds )/( Total Assets )

0.75 = (25,00,000+5,00,000+8,00,000-2,00,000 )/( Total Assets )

0.75 = 36,00,000/( Total Assets )

Total Assets = 36,00,000/( 0.75 )

Total Assets = Rs. 48,00,000

So, the Value of total assets is 48,00,000.

**Below is the Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Total Assets – Fixed Assets

Current Assets = Rs. 48,00,000 – Rs. 30,00,000

Current Assets = Rs. 18,00,000

**Question 42. **

**Solution 42:**The Formula of Proprietary Ratio is (Shareholder^’ s Funds )/( Total Assets )

A higher proprietary ratio is generally treated an indicator of sound financial position from long-term point of view, because it means that a large proportion of total assets is provided by equity and hence the firm is less dependent on external sources.

**Question 43. **

**Solution 43:Calculation of Interest Coverage Ratio:-**Interest Coverage Ratio = (Net Profit before Interest & tncome Tax )/( Fixed Interest Charges)

Interest Coverage Ratio = (Rs. 2,67,000 )/( Rs. 27,000)

Interest Coverage Ratio = 9.89Times.

So, the Interest Coverage Ratio is 9.89 times.

**Working Note:-**Calculation of Interest on Mortgage Loan:

Interest on Mortgage Loan = 1,00,000 × 12%

Interest on Mortgage Loan = 12,000

**Calculation of Interest on Debentures:**Interest on Debentures = 1,00,000 × 15%

Interest on Debentures = 15,000

Total Interest = 12,000 + 15,000 = 27,000

**Calculation of Tax:-**The net profit after interest and tax is given in the above question, but net profit before interest and tax is required to calculate this ratio.

If the profit after taxes is 50, the profit before taxes must be equal to 100.

If the profit after taxes is 1,20,000, the profit before taxes must be

= (100 )/( 50) × 1,20,000

= Rs. 2,40,000

**Calculation of Profit before payment of interest and Tax:-**Profit before payment of interest and Tax = Rs. 2,40,000 + Rs. 27,000

Profit before payment of interest and Tax = Rs. 2,67,000.

**Question 44. **

**Solution 44(i) Calculation of Debt-Equity Ratio:-**Debt Equity Ratio = (Debt )/( Equity ) or (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Debt Equity Ratio = (Rs.6,00,000 )/( Rs.2,50,000 )

Debt Equity Ratio = 2.4 :1

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 2.4 : 1.

**Below is the Calculation of Long term Debts:-**Long Term Debt = Loans + Debentures

Long Term Debt = Rs. 1,00,000 + Rs. 1,50,000

Long Term Debt = Rs. 2,50,000

**Below is the Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Shareholder’s Funds = Share Capital + Reserve & Surplus

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 1,00,000 + Rs. 1,50,000

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 2,50,000

**Comment**: The Company’s debt-to-equity ratio is unsatisfactory because it exceeds the acceptable norms of 2:1. From a long-term viewpoint, it reveals a risky financial situation.

**(ii) Calculation of Proprietary Ratio:-**Proprietary Ratio = (Equity )/( Total Assets ) or (Shareholder^’ s funds)/(Total Assets ) ×100

Proprietary Ratio = (Rs.2,50,000 )/( Rs.12,50,000 ) × 100

Proprietary Ratio = 20 %

So, the Proprietary Ratio is 20%.

**Below is the Calculation Total Assets:-**Total Assets = Current Assets + Tangible Fixed Assets

Total Assets = Rs. 5,50,000 + Rs. 7,00,000

Total Assets = Rs. 12,50,000

**Comment**: The Proprietary Ratio is just 20%, indicating that the company’s long-term financial situation is unsatisfactory since only 20% of the company’s overall assets are financed through equity.

**(iii) Calculation of Interest Coverage Ratio:-**Interest Coverage Ratio = (Net Profit before interest and Tax )/(Fixed Interest Charges)

Interest Coverage ratio = (Rs.2,56,000)/( Rs.64,000)

Interest Coverage ratio = 4 times.

So, the Interest Coverage Ratio is 4 times.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Interest:-**Interest on Loan = Rs. 4,00,000 × 10%

Interest on Loan = Rs. 40,000

Interest on Debenture = Rs. 2,00,000 × 12%

Interest on Debenture = Rs. 24,000

Total Interest = Rs. 64,000

**Calculation of Net profit before interest and tax is calculated as follows:-**Net profit after interest and Tax = Rs. 96,000

Net profit before interest = Rs.96,000 ×100/( 50)

Net profit before interest = Rs. 1,92,000

Net Profit before Interest and Tax = Rs. 1,92,000 + Fixed Interest Charges

Net Profit before Interest and Tax = Rs. 1,92,000 + Rs. 64,000

Net Profit before Interest and Tax = Rs. 2,56,000

**Comment**: A reasonable interest-coverage ratio is 6 or 7, but this company’s actual ratio is 4. In the event of a decline in earnings, the corporation will have trouble paying the interest on long-term loans on a regular basis.

**Question 45. **

**Solution 45:Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover ratio = (Cost of revenue From Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 3,00,000 )/( Rs. 80,000)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 3.75 times.

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 3.75.

**Below is the Calculation of Cost of Sales from Operations Activity:-**Cost of Sales from Operations Activity = Rs. 92,400 + Rs. 2,75,200 – Rs. 67,600

Cost of Sales from Operations Activity = Rs. 3,00,000

**Below is the Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory )/2

Average Inventory = (Rs. 92,400 + Rs. 67,600 )/( 2)

Average Inventory = (Rs. 1,60,000 )/( 2)

Average Inventory = Rs. 80,000

**Question 46. **

**Solution 46Calculation of Inventory turnover Ratio:-**Inventory turnover ratio = (Cost of revenue From Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 3,60,000/80,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 4.5 times

So, the Inventory turnover Ratio is 4.5 times.

**Calculation of Cost of revenue from Operations:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Opening Inventory + Net purchases + Carriage Inwards + Wages – Closing Inventory

Cost of revenue from Operations = 72,000 + 3,36,000 + 15,000 + 25,000 – 88,000

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,60,000

**Below is the Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory )/2

Average Inventory = (72,000 +88,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 80,000

**Working Note:**When measuring Inventory Turnover Ratio, Carriage outwards, Wages, and Rent would be overlooked.

**Question 47. **

**Solution 47Calculation of Inventory turnover Ratio:-**Inventory turnover Ratio = (Cost of revenue From Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs.5,61,000)/(Rs.82,500)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 6.8 times

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 6.8 times.

**Calculation of Cost of revenue from Operations:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Purchase of Stock in Trade + Change in Inventory of stock in Trade

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 5,36,000 + Rs. 25,000

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 5,61,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

Average Inventory = (Rs.95,000 + Rs. 70,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 82,500

**Working Note:**When measuring Inventory Turnover Ratio, Carriage outwards, Wages, and Rent would be overlooked.

**Question 48. **

**Solution 48Calculation of Inventory turnover Ratio:-**Inventory turnover Ratio = (Cost of revenue From Operations(cost of goods sold))/(Average Inventory)

Inventory turnover Ratio = (Rs.8,40,000)/(Rs. 1,40,000)

Inventory turnover Ratio = 6 times

So, the Inventory turnover Ratio is 0.57:1.

**Below is the Calculation of Cost of revenue from Operations:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Purchase of Stock in Trade + Change in Inventory of stock in Trade + wages + Manufacturing Exp.

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 6,50,000 – Rs. 30 ,000 + Rs. 1,48,000 + Rs. 72,000

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 8,40,000

**Below is the Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory =(Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

Average Inventory = (Rs.1,25,000 +RS. 1,55,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 1,40,000

**(ii) Calculation of Average age of Inventory:-**Average age of Inventory = (Days in a year)/(Inventory Turnover Ratio )

Average age of Inventory = 365/6

Average age of Inventory = 61 Days

Hence, the Average age of Inventory is 61 Days.

**Question 49. **

**Solution 49Calculation of Inventory turnover Ratio:-**Inventory turnover ratio = (Cost of revenue From Operations)/(Average Inventory)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs.3,000,000)/(Rs. 30,000)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 10 times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 10 times.

**Calculation of Revenue from Operations:-**Revenue from Operations = Cash Sales + Credit Sales – Return Inward

Revenue from Operations = Rs. 1,50,000 + Rs. 2,50,000 – Rs. 25,000

Revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,75,000

**Calculation of Cost of revenue from Operations:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Revenue from Operations (Sales) – Gross Profit

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,75,000 – 20% of Rs. 3,75,000

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,75,000 – Rs. 75,000

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,00,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

Average Inventory = (Rs.25,000 +RS. 35,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 30,000

**Question 50.**

**Solution 50:Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio =( Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs.3,00,000)/(Rs. 60,000)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 5 times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio 5 times.

**Calculation of Cost of revenue from Operations:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Revenue from Operations (Sales) – Gross Profit

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 5,00,000 – 40% of 5,00,000

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 5,00,000 – Rs. 2,00,000

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,00,000

**Below is the Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory )/2

Average Inventory = (Rs.54,000 +RS. 66,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 60,000

**(ii) Calculation of Average age of Inventory:-**Average age of Inventory = (Days in a year)/(Inventory Turnover Ratio )

Average age of Inventory = 365/5

Average age of Inventory = 73 Days

So, the Average age of Inventory is 73 Days.

**Question 51. **

**Solution 51:Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = ( Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs.2,50,000)/(Rs. 40,000)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 6.25 times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 6.25 times.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Cost of Goods sold:-**It is given that the gross profit is 20% on cost.

If revenue from operations is Rs. 3,00,000,

Cost of goods sold = (100 )/120 × 3,00,000 = Rs. 2,50,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory )/2

Average Inventory = (Rs. 42,500 + Rs. 37,500 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 40,000

**Question 52. **

**Solution 52Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = ( Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs.10,20,000)/(Rs. 1,50,000)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 6.8 times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 6.8 times.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = Revenue from Operations × Rate

Gross Profit = 12,00,000 × 15%

Gross Profit = 1,80,000

**Calculation of Cost of revenue from Operations:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Revenue from Operations – Gross Profit

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 12,00,000 – (15% of 12,00,000)

Cost of revenue from Operations = 10,20,000

**Calculation of Opening Inventory:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Opening Inventory + Purchases + Direct Expenses – Closing Inventory

Rs. 10,20,000 = Opening Inventory + Rs. 10,00,000 + Rs. 48,000 – Rs. 1,64,000

Rs. 10,20,000 = Opening Inventory + Rs. 8,84,000

Opening Inventory = Rs. 1,36,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory )/2

Average Inventory = (Rs.1,36,000 +RS. 1,64,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 1,50,000

**Question 53. **

**Solution 53:Calculation of Opening Inventory:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Opening Inventory + Purchases + Freight – Closing Inventory

Rs. 5,80,000 = Opening Inventory + Rs. 5,70,000 + Rs. 20,000 – Rs. 70,000

Rs. 5,80,000 = Opening Inventory + Rs. 5,20,000

Opening Inventory = Rs. 60,000

So, the Opening Inventory is Rs. 60,000.

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = Revenue from Operations × Rate

Gross Profit = 5,00,000 × 16%

Gross Profit = 80,000

**Calculation of Cost of revenue from Operations:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Revenue from Operations + Gross Profit

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 5,00,000 + 80,000

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 5,80,000

**Question 54. **

**Solution 54:Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Goods sold)/(Average Inventory)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs.4,40,000)/(Rs.55,000)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 8 times.

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 8 times.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Gross Loss:-**Revenue from Operations = Rs. 4,00,000

Gross Loss = Rs. 4,00,000 × 10%

Gross Loss = Rs. 40,000

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Cost of Revenue from Operations = Revenue from Operations + Gross Loss

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 4,00,000 + Rs. 40,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 4,40,000

**Question 55. **

**Solution 55:Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory )

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs.5,60,000 )/(RS.87,500)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 6.4 times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 6.4 times.

**Calculation of Cost of revenue from Operations:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Opening Inventory + Purchases + Direct Charges – Closing Inventory

Rs. 5,60,000 = Rs. 75,000 + Rs. 4,40,000 + Rs. 1,30,000 + Rs. 15,000 – Closing Inventory

Closing Inventory = Rs. 6,60,000 – Rs. 5,60,000

Closing inventory = Rs. 1,00,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing inventory )/2

Average Inventory = (Rs.75,000+ Rs.1,00,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 87,500

**Question 56. **

**Solution 56:Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory )

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 1,50,000 )/(Rs. 50,000)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 3 times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 3 times.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Cost of revenue from Operations:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Revenue from operations – Gross profit

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 2,00,000 – 25% of 2,00,000

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 2,00,000 – Rs. 50,000

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 1,50,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory )/2

Average Inventory = (Rs.20,000 + Rs.80,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 50,000

Closing Inventory = ( 40 )/100 × 2,00,000

Closing Inventory = Rs.80,000

Opening Inventory =(1 )/4× 80,000 = Rs. 20,000

**Question 57. **

**Solution 57Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory )

Inventory Turnover Ratio =(8,00,000 )/(1,60,000 )

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 5 times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio = 5 times.

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Gross Profit is 25% on cost.

Revenue from Operations = Rs. 10,00,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 10,00,000 × (100 )/125

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 8,00,000

**Opening Inventory is 10% of cost of Revenue from Operations**Opening Inventory = 8,00,000 × (10 )/100

Opening Inventory = Rs. 80,000

Closing Inventory = 80,000 × 3 = Rs. 2,40,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory )/2

Average Inventory = (80,000 + 2,40,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 1,60,000

**Question 58.**

**Solution 58:Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory )

7 = (Rs. 5,60,000 )/(Average Inventory )

Average Inventory = (Rs.5,60,000 )/(7 )

Average Inventory = Rs. 80,000

So, the Average Inventory is Rs. 80,000

**Calculation of Cost of revenue from Operations:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Revenue from operations – Gross profit

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 7,00,000 – Rs. 1,40,000

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 5,60,000

**It is given that Closing stock is more than opening stock:-Calculation of Opening Inventory:-**Opening Inventory = Rs. 80,000 + Rs. 16,000 × 1/2

Opening Inventory = Rs. 88,000

**Calculation of Closing Inventory:-**Closing Inventory

Closing Inventory = Rs. 10,000 – Rs. 16,000 × 1/2

Closing Inventory = Rs. 72,000

**Question 59**

**Solution59Calculation of Average inventory:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory )

4 = (Rs .4,80,000 )/(Average Inventory )

Average Inventory =(Rs. 4,80,000 )/4

Average Inventory = Rs. 1,20,000

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Cost of Revenue from Operations = Cash Revenue from Operations + Credit Revenue from operations – Gross Profit

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 1,00,000 + Rs. 5,00,000 – Rs. 1,20,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 4,80,000

**Case I :** If Closing inventory was Rs. 1,00,000 in excess of opening inventory.

Opening Inventory = Rs. 1,20,000 – (1 )/2× Rs.1,00,000

Opening Inventory = Rs. 20,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 1,20,000 + (1 )/2×Rs.1,00,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 1,70,000

**Case II: **If closing inventory was 2 times that in the beginning.

(Average Inventory) × 2 = Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory

1,20,000 × 2 = Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory

Rs. 2,40,000 Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory

Since Closing Inventory was twice as much as Opening Inventory at the start, the ratio between Opening and Closing Inventory would be 1:2.

Opening Inventory = Rs. 2,40,000 × (1 )/3

Opening Inventory = Rs. 80,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 2,40,000 × (2 )/3

Closing Inventory = Rs. 1,60,000

**Case III:** If closing inventory was 2 times more than that in the beginning.

Since Closing Inventory was twice as much as Opening Inventory at the start, the ratio between Opening and Closing Inventory would be 1:3.

Opening Inventory = Rs. 2,40,000 × (1 )/4

Opening Inventory = Rs. 60,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 2,40,000 × (3 )/4

Opening Inventory = Rs. 1,80,000

**Case IV: **If Closing inventory was 3 times that in the beginning.

Since Closing Inventory was three times that at the start, the ratio between Opening and Closing Inventory would be one-third.

Opening Inventory = Rs. 2,40,000 × (1 )/4

Opening Inventory = Rs. 60,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 2,40,000 × (3 )/4

Opening Inventory = Rs. 1,80,000

**Q60 (A)**

**Solution 60 (A)Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory )

8 times =(RS.3,00,000 (given))/(Average Inventory )

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs.3,00,000 )/(8 )

Average Inventory = Rs. 37,500

So, the Inventory is Rs. 37,500.

**Calculation of Average Invemtory:-**Average Inventory × 2 = Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory

Rs. 37,500 × 2 = Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory

Rs. 75,000 = Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory

Since opening inventory is two times that of closing inventory, the ratio between opening and closing inventory would be 3:1.

Opening Inventory = Rs. 75,000 × (3 )/4

Opening Inventory = Rs. 56,250

Closing Inventory = Rs. 75,000 × (1 )/4

Opening Inventory = Rs. 18,750

**Question 60 (B)**

**Solution 60 (B)Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory )

8 Times = (Rs. 1,50,000 )/(Average Inventory )

Average Inventory = (RS.1,50,000 )/(8 )

Average Inventory = Rs. 18,750

**Calculation of Closing Inventory and Opening Inventory:-**Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory = Average Inventory × 2

Rs. 18,750 × 2 = Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory

Rs. 37,500 = Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory

Since opening inventory is 1.5 times that of closing inventory, the ratio between opening and closing inventory would be 2.5:1.

Opening Inventory = Rs. 37,500 × (2.5 )/3.5

Opening Inventory = Rs. 26,786

Closing Inventory = Rs. 37,500 × 1/3.5

Closing Inventory = Rs. 10,714

**Question 61. **

**Solution 61Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory )

10 Times = (Cost of Revenue from Operations)/60,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 60,000 × 10

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 6,00,000

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**It is given that 10% Gross profit on Sale

Selling Price = Rs. 6,00,000 × 110/100

Selling Price = Rs. 6,60,000

Gross Profit = Sale – COGS

Gross Profit = 6,60,000 – 6,00,000

Hence, Gross Profit is Rs. 60,000

**Question 62. **

**Solution 62Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory )

6 times = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/60,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 6 × 60,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,60,000

So, the Cost of Revenue from Operations is Rs. 3,60,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Opening Inventory = Rs. 40,000

It is given that Closing Inventory is 2 times of Opening Inventory.

Closing Inventory = 2 × 40,000

Closing Inventory = 80,000

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory )/2

Average Inventory = (Rs. 40,000 + Rs. 80,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 60,000

**Calculation of Revenue from Operations:-**Gross profit is 20% on Sales.

Cost of Revenue from Operations is 3,60,000

Revenue from Operations = 3,60,000 × 100/80

Revenue from Operations = Rs. 4,50,000

**Question. 63 **

**Solution 63:**It is given that Gross profit is 25% on cost.

**(i)**Revenue from Operations = Rs.3,00,000,

Cost of Goods Sold = 3,00,000 × 100/125

Cost of Goods Sold = Rs. 2,40,000

Average Inventory = (Rs.2,40,000)/5=RS.48,000

**(ii) Calculation of Opening Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Rs. 2,40,000)/5

Average Inventory = Rs. 48,000

Opening Inventory = Rs. 48,000 – 4,000 × 1/2

Opening Inventory = Rs. 48,000 – 2,000

Opening Inventory = Rs. 46,000

**(iii) Calculation of Closing Inventory:-**Closing Inventory = Rs. 48,000 + 4,000 × 1/2

Closing Inventory = Rs. 48,000 + 2,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 50,000

**(iv) Calculation of Quick Assets:-**Current Liabilities are Rs. 50,000 and Quick Ratio is 1.

Quick Assets = Rs. 50,000 × 1

Quick Assets = Rs. 50,000

**(v) Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Quick Assets + Closing Inventory

Current Assets = Rs. 50,000 + Rs. 50,000

Current Assets = Rs. 1,00,000

**Question 64. **

**Solution 64:(i) Calculation of Liquid Ratio:-**Liquid Ratio = (Liquid Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

Liquid Ratio = (Rs. 2,00,000)/(Rs. 1,60,000)

Liquid Ratio = 1.25:1

**Calculation of Liquid Assets:-**Liquid Assets = Trade receivables + Cash & Cash Equivalents

Liquid Assets = Rs. 1,75,000 + Rs. 25,000

Liquid Assets = Rs. 2,00,000

**Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = Trade payables + Outstanding Expenses

Current Liabilities = Rs. 1,50,000 + Rs. 10,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 1,60,000

**(ii) Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average inventory)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (RS.6,24,000)/(Rs.52,000)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 12 Times

So, Inventory Turnover Ratio is 12 Times

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Cost of Revenue from Operations = Revenue from operations – Gross Profit

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 8,00,000 – Rs. 1,76,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 6,24,000

Calculation of Average Inventory:-

Average Inventory =(Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory)/2

Average Inventory = (Rs. 44,000 +Rs. 60,000)/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 52,000

**(iii) Calculation of Debt Equity Ratio:-**Debt Equity Ratio = (Long Term Debts)/(Shareholder^’ sFunds)

Debt Equity Ratio = 2,00,000/6,40,000

Debt Equity Ratio = 0.3125 : 1

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 0.3125 : 1.

It is given that Long Term Debts are (Debentures) = Rs. 2,00,000

**Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Shareholder’s Funds = Share Capital + General Reserve + Profit and Loss Balance

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 4,50,000 + Rs. 1,20,000 + Rs. 70,000

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 6,40,000

**Question 65. **

**Solution 65Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (20,000 + 2,40,000 – 60,000 )/40,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 2,00,000/40,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 5 Times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 5 times.

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Cost of Revenue from Operations = Opening Inventory + Purchases – Closing Inventory

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 20,000 + 2,40,000 – 60,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 2,00,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory)/2

Average Inventory = (20,000 + 60,000)/2

Average Inventory = 40,000

**(i)** Goods purchased for Rs. 40,000.

Opening Inventory = Rs. 20,000

Purchase = Rs. 2,40,000 + Rs. 40,000 = Rs. 2,80,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 60,000 + 40,000 = Rs. 1,00,000

**Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory turnover ratio = (2,00,000 )/60,000

Inventory turnover ratio = 3.33 times

Calculation of Average Inventory:-

Average Inventory = (20,000+1,00,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 60,000

**Effect of Transaction:-** Inventory Turnover Ratio is Decrease.**Reason**:- Purchases and Closing Inventory is increases but Cost of revenue from operations will remain unchanged.

**(ii)** Sale of goods for Rs. 25,000 (Cost Rs. 30,000).

Opening Inventory = Rs. 20,000

Purchase = Rs. 2,40,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 60,000 – 30,000 = Rs. 30,000

**Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory turnover ratio = (2,30,000 )/25,000

Inventory turnover ratio = 9.2 times

So, the Inventory turnover ratio is 9.2 times.

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Cost of Revenue from Operations = Opening Inventory + Purchases – Closing Inventory

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 20,000 + 2,40,000 – 30,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 2,30,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (20,000+30,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 25,000

**Effect of Transaction**:- Inventory Turnover Ratio is Increases.**Reason**:- Decrease in closing Inventory by Rs. 30,000 and cost of goods sold is increases.

**(iii)** Decreases in the value of closing inventory by Rs. 20,000.

Opening Inventory = Rs. 20,000

Purchase = Rs. 2,40,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 60,000 – 20,000 = Rs. 40,000

**Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory turnover ratio = (2,20,000 )/30,000

Inventory turnover ratio = 7.33 times

So, the Inventory turnover ratio is 7.33 times.

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Cost of Revenue from Operations = Opening Inventory + Purchases – Closing Inventory

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 20,000 + 2,40,000 – 40,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 2,20,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (20,000+40,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 30,000

**Effect of Transaction**:- Inventory Turnover Ratio is Increases.**Reason**:- If Closing Stock Decrease by Rs. 20,000 then cost of goods sold is increased.

**(iv) **Increase in the value of closing inventory by Rs. 10,000.

Opening Inventory = Rs. 20,000

Purchase = Rs. 2,40,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 60,000 + 10,000 = Rs. 70,000

**Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory turnover ratio = (1,90,000 )/30,000

Inventory turnover ratio = 4.22 times

So, the Inventory turnover ratio is 4.22 times.

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Cost of Revenue from Operations = Opening Inventory + Purchases – Closing Inventory

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 20,000 + 2,40,000 – 70,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 1,90,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (20,000 + 70,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 45,000

**Effect of Transaction:- **Inventory Turnover Ratio is Decreases.**Reason:-** If Closing Stock Increase by Rs. 10,000 then cost of goods sold is Decreased.

**(v) **Goods costing Rs. 5,000 distributed as free sample.

Opening Inventory = Rs. 20,000

Purchase = Rs. 2,40,000 – Rs. 5,000 = Rs. 2,35,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 60,000 + 5,000 = Rs. 55,000

**Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory turnover ratio = (2,00,000 )/37,500

Inventory turnover ratio = 5.33 times

So, the Inventory turnover ratio is 5.33 times.

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Cost of Revenue from Operations = Opening Inventory + Purchases – Closing Inventory

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 20,000 + 2,35,000 – 55,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = 2,00,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (20,000 + 55,000 )/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 37,500

**Effect of Transaction**:- Inventory Turnover Ratio is Increases.**Reason**:- Decrease in purchase and decrease in closing inventory by Rs. 30,000, Cost of revenue from operations will unchanged.

**Question 66. **

**Solution66.Calculation of Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio:-**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations)/(Average Trade Receivables)

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Rs.6,00,000)/(Rs.1,00,000)

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = 6 times

So, the Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio is 6 times.

**Calculation of Average Trade Receivables:-**Average Trade Receivables = (Opening Trade Receivables +Closing Trade Receivables )/2

Average Trade Receivables = (Rs. 75,000 + Rs. 1,25,000)/2

Average Trade Receivables = Rs. 1,00,000

**Question 67. **

**Solution 67(i) Calculation of Trade Receivable Ratio:-**Trade Receivable Turnover Ratio = (Net Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average trade receivables )

Trade receivables Turnover Ratio = (RS.8,00,000 )/(RS.80,000)

Trade receivables Turnover Ratio = 10 times

So, the Trade receivables Turnover Ratio is 10 times

**(ii) Calculation of Average Collection Period:-**Average Collection Period =(Days in a year )/(Trade receivables Turnover Ratio )

Average Collection Period = (365 )/10

Average Collection Period = 37 days

So, the Average Collection Period is 37 days.

**Working Note:-**

**Calculation of Cost of revenue from Operations:-**

Cost of revenue from Operations = 12,00,000 × 70%

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 8,40,000

**Calculation of Net Credit of revenue from Operations:-**Net Credit Revenue from Operations = Credit Revenue from operations – Revenue from operations Returns

Net Credit Revenue from Operations = Rs. 8,40,000 – Rs. 40,000

Net Credit Revenue from Operations = Rs. 8,00,000

**Calculation of Average Trade Receivables:-**Average Trade Receivables = (Opening Trade Receivables + Closing Trade Receivables )/2

Average Trade Receivables = (Rs. 73,250 + Rs. 86,750 )/2

Average Trade Receivables = Rs. 80,000

**Question 68. **

**Solution 68Calculation of Average trade Receivables:-**Average Trade Receivables = (Opening Trade Receivables + Closing Trade Receivable s )/2

Average Trade Receivables = (Rs. 60,000 + Rs. 90,000 )/2

Average Trade Receivables = Rs. 75,000

**Calculation of Trade receivables Turnover Ratio:-**Trade receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables)

Trade receivables Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 4,00,000 )/(Rs. 75,000)

Trade receivables Turnover Ratio = 5.33 times

**Calculation of Average Collection Period:-**Average Collection Period = (Days in a year )/(Trade receivables Turnover Ratio )

Average Collection Period = (365 )/5.33

Average Collection Period = 68.48 days

Rounded of in nearest = 69 days

**Working Note:-**Total revenue from operations = 4,80,000,

Credit revenue from operations = (100 )/120 × 4,80,000 = Rs. 4,00,000

Closing Trade Receivables = 60,000 + 30,000 = Rs. 90,000

**Question 69. **

**Solution 69Calculation of Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio:-**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Net credit revenue from operations )/(Average debtors & B/R)

Trade receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables)

Trade receivables Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 8,40,000 )/(Rs. 70,000)

Trade receivables Turnover Ratio = 12 times

So, the Trade receivables Turnover Ratio is 12 times

**Calculation of Net credit Revenue from Operations:-**Net credit Revenue from Operations = Rs.10,00,000 – Rs.1,50,000 – Rs. 10,000

Net credit Revenue from Operations = Rs.8,40,000

**Calculation of Average Debtors and B/P:-**Average Debtors and B/P = (Rs. 50,000 + Rs. 60,000 + Rs. 10,000 + Rs.20,000 )/2

Average Debtors and B/P = Rs. 70,000

**Calculation of Average Collection Period:-**Average Collection Period = (Days in a year )/(Trade receivables Turnover Ratio )

Average Collection Period = 365/12

Average Collection Period = 30.42 days

Rounded of in nearest 10 = 31 days

So, the Average Collection Period is 31 days

**Question 70. **

**Solution 70:Calculation of Closing Receivables:-**Average Trade receivables = (Opening Trade Receivables + Closing Trade Receivables)/2

Rs. 36,000 = (Opening Trade Receivables + Rs. 40,000)/2

Rs. 36,000 × 2 = Opening Trade Receivables + Rs. 40,000

Rs. 72,000 = Opening Trade Receivables + Rs. 40,000

Opening Trade Receivables = Rs. 72,000 – Rs. 40,000

Opening Trade Receivables = Rs. 32,000

So, the Opening trade receivables are Rs. 32,000.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Average Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio:-**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Net credit revenue from operations )/(Average Trade Receivables )

12 times = (Rs.4,32,000 )/(Average Trade Receivables )

Average Trade Receivables = (Rs. 4,32,000 )/(12 )

Average Trade Receivables = Rs. 36,000

So, the Average trade receivables are Rs. 36,000.

**Question 71. **

**Solution 71Calculation of Trade Receivables turnover ratio:-**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Net credit revenue from operations )/(Average Trade Receivables )

6 Times = (Rs. 5,64,000 )/(Average Trade Receivables )

Average Trade Receivables = (Rs. 5,64,000 )/(6 )

Average Trade Receivables = Rs. 94,000

So, the Average Trade Receivables is Rs. 94,000

**Calculation of Opening Trade Receivables:-**Opening Trade Receivables = Rs. 94,000 – (Rs. 10,000)/2

Opening Trade Receivables = Rs. 94,000 – Rs. 5,000

Opening Trade Receivables = Rs. 89,000

**Calculation of Closing Trade Receivables:-**Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 94,000 + (Rs. 10,000)/2

Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 94,000 + Rs. 5,000

Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 99,000

**Question 72 A company made Credit Revenue Credit from Operations of Rs. 8,76,000 during the year ended 31st March, 2016. If Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio is 18.25 rimes calculate:**(1) Average Trade Receivables; and (2) Closing Trade receivables. If closing Trade Receivables are three times in comparison to opening Trade Receivables.

**Solution 72Calculation of Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio:-**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Net credit revenue from operations )/(Average Trade Receivables )

18.25 Times = (Rs. 8,76,000 )/(Average Trade Receivables )

Average Trade Receivables = (Rs. 8,76,000 )/(Rs.18.25)

Average Trade Receivables = Rs. 48,000

So, the trade receivables turnover ratio is Rs. 48,000

**Calculation of Opening Trade Receivables:-**Average Trade receivables = (Opening Trade Receivables + Closing Trade Receivables)/2

Rs. 48,000 = (Opening Trade Receivables + Closing Trade Receivables)/2

Rs. 48,000 × 2 = Opening Trade Receivables + Closing Trade Receivables

Opening Trade Receivables + Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 72,000

It is given that the Ratio between Opening trade Receivables and Closing Trade Receivables is 1:3

Opening Trade Receivables = Rs. 96,000 × 1/4

Opening Trade Receivables = Rs. 24,000

Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 96,000 × (3 )/4

Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 72,000

**Question 73. **

**Solution 73Calculation of Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio:-**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Net credit revenue from operations )/(Average Trade Receivables )

5 Times = (Rs. 10,00,000 )/(Average Trade Receivables )

Average Trade Receivables = (Rs. 10,00,000 )/5

Average Trade Receivables = Rs. 2,00,000

Average Trade Receivables = (Opening Trade receivables+ Closing Trade Receivables)/2

Rs. 2,00,000 = (Opening Trade receivables+ Closing Trade Receivables)/2

Rs. 2,00,000 × 2 = Opening Trade receivables and Closing Trade Receivables

Rs. 4,00,000 = Opening Trade receivables and Closing Trade Receivables

It is given that the Ratio between Opening trade Receivables and Closing Trade Receivables is 1:3.

**Calculation of Opening trade receivables:-**Opening Trade Receivables = Rs. 4,00,000 × 1/4

Opening Trade Receivables = Rs. 1,00,000

**Calculation of Closing trade receivables:-**Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 4,00,000 × 3/4

Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 3,00,000

**Working Note:-Calculation of Revenue from Operations:-**It is given that,

Gross Profit is 25% on Sales

Cost of Revenue From Operations = Rs. 9,00,000

Revenue from Operations = Sales × (100 )/(100 – Rate)

Revenue from Operations = 9,00,000 × (100 )/(100-25)

Revenue from Operations = 9,00,000 × (100 )/75

Revenue from Operations = Rs. 12,00,000

**Calculation of Cash revenue from operations:-**Cash revenue from operations = Rs. 12,00,000 × 20/(100+20)

Cash revenue from operations = Rs. 12,00,000 × 20/120

Cash revenue from operations = Rs. 2,00,000

Credit revenue from operations = Total revenue from operations – Cash revenue from operations

Credit revenue from operations = Rs. 12,00,000 – Rs. 2,00,000

Credit revenue from operations = Rs. 10,00,000

**Question 74. **

**Solution 74Calculation of Closing Trade Receivables:-**Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 6,40,000 × 1.5/2.5

Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 3,84,000

So, the Closing Trade Receivables is 3,84,000

**Working Note:-**It is given that the Cost of Revenue from Operations Rs. 16,00,000.

Gross Profit = 16,00,000 × 25/100

Gross Profit = Rs. 4,00,000

Total Revenue from Operations = Cost of Revenue from Operations + Gross Profit

Total Revenue from Operations = Rs. 16,00,000 + Rs. 4,00,000

Total Revenue from Operations = Rs. 20,00,000

**Calculation of Cash Revenue from Operations:-**Cash Revenue from Operations and Credit Revenue from Operations will be 25:100 or 1:4.

Cash revenue from Operations = 20,00,000 × 25/(100+25)

Cash revenue from Operations = 20,00,000 × 25/125

Cash revenue from Operations = Rs. 4,00,000

**Calculation of Credit Revenue from Operations:-**Credit revenue from Operations = Total revenue from Operations – Cash revenue from Operations

Credit revenue from Operations = Rs. 20,00,000 – Rs. 4,00,000

Credit revenue from Operations = Rs. 16,00,000

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Net credit revenue from operations )/(Average Trade Receivables )

5 Times =(Rs. 16,00,000 )/(Average Trade Receivables )

Average Trade Receivables = (Rs. 16,00,000 )/5

Average Trade Receivables = Rs. 3,20,000

Average Trade Receivables = (Opening Trade receivables+ Closing Trade Receivables)/2

Rs. 3,20,000 × 2 = Opening Trade receivables + Closing Trade Receivables

Rs. 6,40,000 = Opening Trade receivables + Closing Trade Receivables

Closing Trade Receivables are 1.5 time.

Opening trade receivables and closing trade receivables will be 1 : 1.5.

**Question 75. **

**Solution 75:1.) Calculation for the Year of 2016:-**Calculation of Average Trade Receivables:-

Average Trade Receivables = (Opening Trade Receivables+Closing Trade Receivables )/2

Average Trade Receivables = (5,40,000 + 6,60,000 )/2

Average Trade Receivables = Rs. 6,00,000

So, the Average Trade Receivables is Rs. 6,00,000.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Trade receivables turnover Ratio:-**Trade receivables turnover Ratio = (Net Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables )

Trade receivables turnover Ratio = (36,00,000 )/(6,00,000 )

Trade receivables turnover Ratio = 6 Times

**Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from operations )/(Average Inventory )

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (27,00,000 )/(6,75,000 )

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 4 Times.

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 36,00,000 less 25%

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 36,000 – Rs. 9,00,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 27,00,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory )/(2 )

Average Inventory = (Rs. 6,50,000 + Rs. 7,00,000 )/(2 )

Average Inventory = Rs. 6,75,000

**2.) Calculation for the Year of 2017:-**Calculation of Trade receivable turnover ratio:-

Trade receivables turnover Ratio = (Net Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables )

Trade receivables turnover Ratio =(60,00,000 )/(8,00,000 )

Trade receivables turnover Ratio = 7.5 Times

So, the trade receivables turnover Ratio is 7.5 Times.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Average Trade Receivables:-**Average Trade Receivables = (Opening Trade Receivables + Closing Trade Receivable s )/2

Average Trade Receivables = (6,60,000 +9,40,000 )/2

Average Trade Receivables = Rs. 8,00,000

**Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from operations )/(Average Inventory )

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (45,00,000 )/(8,50,000 )

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 5.29 Times

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 60,00,000 less 25%

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 60,000 – Rs. 15,00,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 45,00,000

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory )/(2 )

Average Inventory = (Rs.7,00,000 + Rs.10,00,000 )/(2 )

Average Inventory = Rs. 8,50,000

**Comment**:

- The Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio rose from 6 to 7.5 times in 2017. It means that the sum due from trade receivables is being obtained faster.
- The Inventory Turnover Ratio rose in 2017. It means that inventory is being converted into revenue from operations at a faster rate. As a result, the management’s sales strategy is very successful.

**Question 76. **.

**Solution76Calculation of Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio:-**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Net Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables )

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (3,80,000-20,000 )/(( 1 )/(2 )(70,000+1,10,000) )

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (3,60,000 )/(90,000 )

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = 4 times

So, the Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio is 4 times.

**Calculation of Average Trade Receivables:-**Average Trade Receivables = ( 70,000+1,10,000 )/(2 )

Average Trade Receivables = ( 1,80,000 )/(2 )

Average Trade Receivables = 90,000

**(i) Received Rs. 20,000 from a customer:-**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Net Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables )

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (3,60,000 )/(( 70,000 +90,000 )/(2 ))

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (3,60,000 )/80,000

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = 4.5 times

**Effect**:- Increase**Reason**:- The reduction in trade receivables receipts would result in a decrease in the closing trade receivables, resulting in an improvement in the trade receivables turnover ratio.

**(ii) Sale of goods on credit Rs. 30,000.**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Net Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables )

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (3,90,000 )/(( 70,000 + 1,40,000 )/(2 ))

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (3,90,000 )/1,05,000

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = 3.71 times

**Effect**:- Decrease**Reason**:- Credit income from operations would rise at the same rate as closing trade receivables, lowering the trade receivables turnover ratio.

**(iii) Cash revenue from operations Rs. 40,000.**

**Effect**:- Not Alter**Reason**:- There was no effect on credit income from operations or trade receivables.

**Question 77. **

**Solution 77Calculation of Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio:-**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Net credit revenue from operations )/(Average debtors & B/R)

Trade receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables)

Trade receivables Turnover Ratio = (Rs.17,00,000 )/(Rs. 3,400,000)

Trade receivables Turnover Ratio = 5 times

So, the Trade receivables Turnover Ratio is 5 times.

**Calculation of Net credit Revenue from Operations:-**Net credit Revenue from Operations = Rs.24,00,000 -Rs.6,40,000-Rs. 60,000

Net credit Revenue from Operations = Rs.17,00,000

**Calculation of Average Debtors & B/P:-**Average Debtors & B/P = (Rs. 3,00,000 + Rs. 3,50,000 + Rs. 20,000 + Rs.1,20,000 )/2

Average Debtors & B/P = Rs. 3,40,000

**Calculation of Average Payment Period:-**Average Payment Period = (Days in a year )/(Trade receivables Turnover Ratio )

Average Payment Period = (365 )/5

Average Payment Period = 73 days

**Question 78. **

**Solution 78Calculation of Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio:-**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Debtors+ B/R)

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 5,25,00,000 )/(Rs. 54,00,000 + Rs. 6,00,000)

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = 8.75 Times

**Calculation of Average Collection Period:-**Average Collection Period = (Days in a year )/(Trade receivables Turnover Ratio )

Average Collection Period = (365 )/8.75

Average Collection Period = 41.7 or 42 days

**Calculation of Trade Payables Turnover Ratio:-**Trade Payables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Purchases )/(Creditors+Bills Payables)

Trade Payables Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 3,15,00,000 )/(Rs. 20,00,000 + Rs. 5,00,000)

Trade Payables Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 3,15,00,000 )/(Rs. 25,00,000)

Trade Payables Turnover Ratio is 12.6 times.

**Calculation of Average Payables Payable:-**Average Payment Period = (Days in a year )/(Trade Payables Turnover Ratio )

Average Payment Period = (365 )/12.6

Average Payment Period = 28.97 days or 29 days

**Question 79. **

**Solution79.Calculation of working Capital Turnover Ratio:-**Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Net Revenue from operations )/(Working Capital )

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 19,80,000 )/(Rs. 3,96,000)

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = 5 times.

So, the Working Capital Turnover Ratio is 5 times.

**Calculation of Net Revenue from Operations:-**Net Revenue from Operations = Credit Revenue from Operations + Cash Revenue from operations- Revenue from Operations return

Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 8,00,000 + Rs. 12,60,000 – Rs. 80,000

Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 19,80,000

**Calculation of Working Capital:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current liabilities

Working Capital = Rs. 7,20,000 – Rs. 3,24,000

Working Capital = Rs. 3,96,000

**Question 80.**

**Solution 80:Calculation of working Capital Turnover Ratio:-**Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Net Revenue from operations )/(Working Capital )

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 52,80,000 )/(Rs. 8,80,000)

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = 6 times.

So, the Working Capital Turnover Ratio is 6 times.

**Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Asset = Inventory + Trade receivables + Cash

Current Assets = Rs. 6,00,000 + Rs. 5,00,000 + Rs. 1,00,000

Current Assets = Rs. 12,00,000

**Calculation of Current Liabilities-**Current Liabilities = Trade Payables + Bank Overdraft

Current Liabilities = Rs. 2,00,000 + Rs. 1,20,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 3,20,000

**Calculation of Working Capital:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current liabilities

Working Capital = Rs. 12,00,000 – Rs. 3,20,000

Working Capital = Rs. 8,80,000

**Question 81. **

**Solution 81Calculation of Working Capital Turnover Ratio:-**Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Net Revenue from operations )/(Working Capital )

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (RS.26,00,000 )/(RS.5,20,000)

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = 5 times

So, the Working Capital Turnover Ratio is 5 times.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Gross Profit:-**It is given that the Gross profit is 30% of COGS.

Gross Profit = Rs. 20,00,000 × 30/100

Gross Profit = Rs. 6,00,000

**Calculation of Net Revenue from Operations:-**Net Revenue from Operation = Credit Revenue from Operations + Gross profit

Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 20,00,000 + 6,00,000

Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 26,00,000

**Calculation of Working Capital:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current liabilities

Working Capital = Rs. 8,60,000 – Rs. 3,40,000

Working Capital = Rs. 5,20,000

**Question 82. **

**Solution 82Calculation of Working Capital Turnover Ratio:-**Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Net Revenue from operations )/(Working Capital )

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 40,00,000 )/(Rs. 4,00,000)

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = 10 times

So, the Working Capital Turnover Ratio is 10 times

**Calculation of Revenue from Operations:-**Net Revenue from Operations = Sales × 100/(100-Rate)

Net Revenue from Operations = 30,40,000 × 100/(100-24)

Net Revenue from Operations = 30,40,000 × 100/76

Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 40,00,000

**Calculation of Working Capital:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current liabilities

Working Capital = Rs. 4,60,000 – Rs. 60,000

Working Capital = Rs. 4,00,000

**Question 83.**

**Solution 83(i) Calculation of Revenue from Operations:-**It is given that the Credit Revenue from Operations are 80% of Revenue from Operations

Revenue from Operations = 45,00,000 × (100 )/(100-Rate)

Revenue from Operations = 45,00,000 × (100 )/(80 )

Revenue from Operations = Rs. 56,25,000

So, the Revenue from Operations are Rs. 56,25,000.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Average trade Receivables:-**Average trade Receivables = (Opening trade receivables + Closing Trade receivables )/2

Average trade Receivables = (Rs. 6,80,000 + Rs. 8,20,000 )/2

Average trade Receivables = Rs. 7,50,000

**Calculation of Credit Revenue from operations:-**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables )

6 times = (Net Revenue from operations )/7,50,000

Credit Revenue from operations = Rs. 7,50,000 × 6

Credit Revenue from operations = Rs. 45,00,000

**(ii) Calculation of Working Capital Turnover Ratio:-**Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Revenue from operations )/(Working Capital )

9 Times = (Rs. 56,25,000 )/(Working Capital )

Working capital = (RS.56,25,000 )/9

Working capital = Rs. 6,25,000

So, the Working capital is Rs. 6,25,000.

**(iii) Calculation of Capital Assets:-**Capital Ratio of the Company is 2.25 : 1

Current Ratio the Working Capital is 2.25 – 1=1.25

Working Capital is 1.25, Current Assets = 2.25

Working Capital is 6,25,000,

Current Assets = 6,25,000 × 2.25/1.25

Current Assets = Rs. 11,25,000

So, the Current Assets is Rs. 11,25,000.

**Question 84. **

**Solution 84Calculation of Working Capital Turnover Ratio:-**Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Net Revenue from operations )/(Working Capital )

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 39,20,000 )/(Rs. 7,00,000)

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = 5.6 times

So, the Working Capital Turnover Ratio is 5.6 times.

**Working Note:-**Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 39,20,000

**Calculation of Working Capital:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current liabilities

Working capital = Rs. 15,00,000 – Rs. 8,00,000

Working capital = Rs. 7,00,000

**Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Total Assets – Non- Current Assets

Current Assets = Rs. 36,00,000 – Rs. 21,00,000 = Rs. 15,00,000

**Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = Total Assets – shareholder’s Funds – Non-Current Liabilities

Current Liabilities = Rs. 36,00,000 – Rs. 18,00,000 – Rs. 10,00,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 8,00,000

**Question 85.(A)**

**Solution 85(A)Calculation of Gross Profit Ratio:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs.90,000 )/(Rs.3,00,000) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = 30%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio is 30%.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Net Revenue from Operations:-**Net Revenue from Operations = Revenue from Operations- Revenue from Operations Return

Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,20,000 – Rs. 20,000

Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,00,000

**Question 85. (B)**

**Solution 85 (B)Calculation of Gross Profit for the year 2015:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs. 52,500 )/(Rs. 2,10,000) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = 25%

So, the gross profit ratio for the year 2015 is 25%

**Calculation of Gross Profit for the year 2016:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs. 84,000 )/(Rs. 4,20,000) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = 20%

So, the gross profit ratio for the year 2016 is 20%

**Comment:**The Gross Profit Ratio has dropped significantly, indicating that while the cost of materials, wages, and other direct costs may have increased, the cost of sales may not have increased in the same proportion.

**Question 86(A)**

**Solution 86 (A)Calculation of Gross Profit Ratio:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross Profit = (Rs.1,90,000 )/(Rs.9,50,000) × 100

Gross Profit = 20%

So, the Gross Profit is 20%.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = Net Revenue from Operations – Cost of Revenue from Operations

Gross Profit = Rs. 9,50,000 – Rs. 7,60,000

Gross Profit = Rs. 1,90,000

Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,45,000 + Rs. 6,30,000 – Rs. 25,000

Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 9,50,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 40,000 + Rs. 7,10,000 – Rs. 10,000 + Rs. 80,000 – Rs. 60,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 7,60,000

**Question 86 (B)**

**Solution 86 (B)Calculation of Gross Profit Ratio:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs.2,50,000 )/(Rs.10,00,000) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = 25%

So, the Gross Profit is 25%.

**Working Notes:-Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = Net Revenue from Operations – Cost of Revenue from Operations

Gross Profit = Rs. 10,00,000 – Rs. 7,50,000

Gross Profit = Rs. 2,50,000

Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 4,20,000 + Rs. 6,00,000 – Rs. 20,000

Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 10,00,000

**Question 87. **

**Solution 87Calculation of Gross Profit Ratio:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs. 96,000 )/(Rs.6,00,000) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = 16%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio is 16%.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = Net Profit + Operating Expenses

Gross Profit = Rs. 40,000 + Rs. 20,000 + Rs. 36,000

Gross Profit = Rs. 96,000

**Question 88. **

**Solution88.Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross profit Ratio = (Rs.66,000 )/(Rs.3,00,000) × 100

Gross profit Ratio = 22%

So, the Gross profit Ratio is 22%

**Working Note:-Calculation of Cost of Revenue from operations:-**Cost of Revenue from operations = Purchases + Excess of Opening Inventory over Closing Inventory

Cost of Revenue from operations = Rs. 2,20,000 + Rs. 14,000

Cost of Revenue from operations = Rs. 2,34,000

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = Total Revenue from Operations – Cost of Revenue from Operations

Gross Profit = Rs. 3,00,000 – Rs. 2,34,000

Gross Profit = Rs. 66,000

**Calculation of Total Revenue from Operations:-**Revenue from operations = 2,40,000 × (100 )/80

Revenue from operations = Rs. 3,00,000

**Question 89. **

**Solution89Calculation of Gross Profit Ratio:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs.1,60,000 )/(Rs.4,80,000) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = 33.33%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio is 33.33%

**Working Note:-Calculation of Total Revenue from Operations:-**It is given that the Credit Revenue from Operations is 1/4th of Total Revenue from Operations.

Total revenue from Operations is Rs. 4

Total Revenue from Operations = Rs. 1,20,000 × 4

Total Revenue from Operations = Rs. 4,80,000

**Calculation of Total Purchases:-**It is given that credit Purchases were (1 )/5 th of cash purchases.

Here,

Credit Purchases is Rs. 1

Cash purchase is Rs. 5

Total Purchases = 1 + 5 = Rs. 6.

Credit Purchase is Rs. 40,000,

Total Purchases = Rs. 40,000 × 6

Total Purchases = Rs. 2,40,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Opening Inventory + Purchase + Carriage + Wages – Closing Inventory

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 70,000 + Rs. 2,40,000 + Rs. 15,000 + Rs. 45,000 – Rs. 50,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,20,000

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross profit = Total Revenue from Operation – Cost of Revenue from Operations

Gross profit = Rs. 4,80,000 – Rs. 3,20,000

Gross profit =1,60,000

**Question 90. **

**Solution 90Calculation of Gross Profit Ratio:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs.1,60,000 )/(Rs.5,60,000) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = 28.57%

So, the gross profit ratio is 28.57%

**Working Note:-**Gross Profit is 40% of Cost

Revenue from operations are Rs. 5,60,000

Gross Profit = Sales × Rate/(100+Rate)

Gross Profit = 5,60,000 × (40 )/(100+40)

Gross Profit = 5,60,000 × (40 )/140

Gross Profit = Rs. 1,60,000

**Question 91 (A)**

**Solution 91(A)Calculation of gross profit ratio:-**Gross profit Ratio =(Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross profit Ratio = (Rs.2,40,000 )/(Rs.12,00,000) × 100

Gross profit Ratio = 22%

So, the Gross profit Ratio is 22%

**Working Note:-**Total Revenue from Operations = Credit of Revenue from operations + Cash Revenue from Operations

Total Revenue from Operations = Rs. 8,00,000 + Rs. 4,00,000

Total Revenue from Operations = Rs. 12,00,000

It is given that the,

Gross profit is 25% of Cost of Revenue from Operations.

Revenue from Operations = Rs. 12,00,000

Gross Profit = Revenue from Operations × (Rate )/( 100+Rate)

Gross Profit = Rs. 12,00,000 × ( 25 )/( 100+25)

Gross Profit = Rs. 12,00,000 × ( 25 )/( 125)

Gross Profit = Rs. 2,40,000

**Question 91 (B)**

**Solution 91(B)Calculation of Gross profit Ratio:-**Gross profit Ratio =(Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross profit Ratio = (2,00,000 )/( 12,00,000) × 100

Gross profit Ratio = 16.67%

So, the Gross profit Ratio is 16.67%.

**Working Note:-**Gross profit is 20% of Cost of Revenue from Operations.

Revenue from Operations are Rs. 12,00,000

Gross Profit = Revenue from Operations × (Rate )/( 100+Rate)

Gross Profit = Rs. 12,00,000 × ( 20)/( 100+20)

Gross Profit = Rs. 12,00,000 × 20/( 120)

Gross Profit = Rs. 2,00,000

**Working Note:-**Total Revenue from Operations = Cash of Revenue from operations + Credit Revenue from Operations

Total Revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,00,000 + Rs. 9,00,000

Total Revenue from Operations = Rs. 12,00,000

**Question 92. **

**Solution 92Calculation of Gross profit Ratio:-**Gross profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross profit Ratio = (Rs.10,000 )/(Rs.1,00,000) × 100

Gross profit Ratio = 10%

So, the Gross profit Ratio is 10%

**Working Note:-**

**Calculation of Net Revenue from operations:-**

Net Revenue from operations = Cash revenue from operations + Credit Revenue from Operations

Net Revenue from operations = Rs. 25,000 + Rs. 75,000

Net Revenue from operations = Rs. 1,00,000

**Calculation of Net Purchases:-**Net Purchases = Cash Purchases + Credit Purchases – Return Outwards

Net Purchases = Rs. 15,000 + Rs. 60,000 – Rs. 2,000

Net Purchases = Rs. 73,000

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from operations:-**Cost of Revenue from operations = (Opening Stock– Closing Inventory) + Purchases + Direct expenses

Cost of Revenue from operations = Rs. 10,000 + Rs. 73,000 + Rs. 2,000 + Rs. 5,000

Cost of Revenue from operations = Rs. 90,000

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross profit = Revenue from Operations – Cost of Revenue from operations

Gross profit = Rs. 1,00,000 – Rs. 90,000

Gross profit = Rs. 10,000

**Question 93.**

**Solution 93Calculation of Gross Profit Ratio:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs.1,20,000 )/(Rs.4,20,000) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = 28.57%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio is 28.57%

**Working Note:-Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from operations )/(Average Inventory )

5 Times = (Cost of Revenue from operations )/(Rs.60,000)

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 60,000 × 5

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,00,000

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = Revenue from Operations – Cost of Revenue from Operations

Gross Profit = Rs. 4,20,000 – Rs. 3,00,000

Gross Profit = Rs. 1,20,000

**Question 94. **

**Solution 94Calculation of Gross Profit Ratio:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs.2 ,20,000 )/(Rs.3,40,000) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = 64.71%

So, the gross Profit Ratio is 64.71%.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Gross Profit-**Gross Profit = Revenue from Operations – Cost of Revenue from Operations

Gross Profit = Rs. 3,40,000 – Rs. 1,20,000

Gross Profit = Rs. 2,20,000

**Calculation of Operating Expenses:-**Operating Expenses = Selling Expenses + Administrative Expenses

Operating Expenses = Rs. 80,000 + Rs. 40,000

Operating Expenses = Rs. 1,20,000

**Calculation of Operating Ratio:-**Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations + Opening expenses)/(Net Revenue from Operations)× 100

Operating Ratio = (Rs.1,20,000+Rs.1,20,000)/(Rs.3,40,000) × 100

Operating Ratio = 70.59%

**Question 95. **

**Solution 95:Calculation of Operating Ratio:-**Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations+Opening expenses)/(Revenue from Operations)

Operating Ratio = (Rs.5,00,000+Rs.1,02,000)/(Rs.7,00,000)

Operating Ratio = 86%

So, the Operating Ratio is 86%

**Working Note:-Calculation of Cost Revenue from Operations:-**Revenue from Operations = Rs. 4,00,000 + Rs. 3,00,000

Revenue from Operations = Rs. 7,00,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 7,00,000 × 100/140

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 5,00,000

**Calculation of Operating Expenses:-**Operating Expenses = Selling and Distribution Expenses + Administrative Expenses

Operating Expenses = Rs. 42,000 + Rs. 60,000

Operating Expenses = Rs. 1,02,000

**Question 96. **

**Solution 96:Calculation of Operating Ratio:-**Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations+Opening expenses)/(Revenue from Operations) ×100

Operating Ratio = (Rs.9,00,000+Rs.1,20,000)/(Rs.12,00,000)

Operating Ratio = 85%

So, the Operating Ratio is 85%

**Working Note:-Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operation:-**Cost of Revenue from Operations = Net Revenue from Operations – Gross profit

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 12,00,000 – Rs. 3,00,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 9,00,000

**Calculation of Operating Expenses:-**Operating Expenses = Office Expenses + Selling Expenses

Operating Expenses = Rs. 80,000 + Rs. 40,000

Operating Expenses = Rs. 1,20,000

**Question 97. **

**Solution 97:Calculation of Operating Ratio:-**Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations+Opening expenses)/(Revenue from Operations) ×100

Operating Ratio = (Rs. 13,80,000 + Rs. 3,96,000)/(Rs. 24,00,000) ×100

Operating Ratio = 74%

So, the Operating Ratio is 74%

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from Operations:-**Cost of Revenue from Operations = Cost of Materials consumed + Change in Inventories of finished Goods and work in Progress

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 14,10,000 – Rs. 30,000

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 13,80,000

**Calculation of Operating Expenses:-**Operating Expenses = Employee Benefit Exp. + depreciation and Amortization Exp. + Other Exp.

Operating Expenses = Rs. 2,82,000 + Rs. 60,000 + Rs. 54,000

Operating Expenses = Rs. 3,96,000

**Question 98. **

**Solution 98:Calculation of Operating Ratio:-**Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations+Opening expenses)/(Net Revenue from Operations) ×100

90% = (Cost of Revenue from Operations + 50,000)/6,60,000

90% × 6,60,000 = Cost of Revenue from Operations + 50,000

5,94,000 = Cost of Revenue from Operations + 50,000

5,94,000 – 50,000 = Cost of Revenue from Operations

5,44,000 = Cost of Revenue from Operations

So, the Cost of Revenue from Operations is 5,44,000

**Working Note:-Calculation of Operating Expenses:-**Operating Expenses = Rs. 30,000 + Rs. 20,000

Operating Expenses = Rs. 50,000

**Calculation of Net Revenue from Operating:-**Net Revenue from Operating = Revenue from operations – Revenue from Operations Return

Net Revenue from Operating = Rs. 7,00,000 – Rs. 40,000

Net Revenue from Operating = Rs. 6,60,000

**Question 99. **

**Solution 99**

**Case (i)Calculation of Operating Profit Ratio:-**Operating Profit Ratio = (Operating Profit )/(Revenue from Operations) ×100

Operating Profit Ratio = (Rs.3,00,000)/(Rs.7,50,000) × 100

Operating Profit Ratio = 40%

**Case (ii)Calculation of Operating Profit Ratio:-**Operating Profit Ratio = (Operating Profit )/(Revenue from Operations) ×100

Operating Profit Ratio = (Rs.2,25,000)/(Rs.15,00,000) × 100

Operating Profit Ratio = 15%

**Calculation of Operating Profit:-**Operating Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Expenses

Operating Profit = Rs. 15,00,000 – (Rs. 12,40,000 + Rs. 35,000)

Operating Profit = Rs. 15,00,000 – Rs. 12,75,000

Operating Profit = Rs. 2,25,000

**Case (iii)Calculation of Operating Profit Ratio:-**Operating Profit Ratio = (Operating Profit )/(Revenue from Operations) ×100

Operating Profit Ratio = (Rs. 2,10,000)/(Rs. 12,00,000) × 100 = 17.5%

Operating Profit Ratio = 17.5%

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = Rs. 12,00,000 × 20%

Gross Profit = Rs. 12,00,000 × 20%

Gross Profit = Rs. 2,40,000

**Calculation of Operating Profit:-**Operating Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Expenses

Operating Profit = 2,40,000 – Rs. 30,000

Operating Profit = Rs. 2,10,000

**Question 100. **

**Solution 100Calculation of Operating Profit Ratio:-**Operating Profit Ratio = (Operating Profit)/(Revenue from Operations (Salse)×100)

Operating Profit Ratio =(Rs.1,54,000)/(Rs.7,00,000)

Operating Profit Ratio = 22%

So, the Operating Profit Ratio is 22%

**Working Note:-Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit is 40% on Cost

Revenue from Operations = Rs. 7,00,000,

Gross Profit = Rs. 7,00,000 × 40/140

Gross Profit = Rs. 2,00,000

**Calculation of Operating Expenses:-**Operating Expenses = Office and Administrative Expenses + Selling Expenses

Operating Expenses = Rs. 30,000 + Rs. 16,000

Operating Expenses = Rs. 46,000

**Calculation of Operating Profit:-**Operating Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Expenses

Operating Profit = Rs. 2,00,000 – Rs. 46,000

Operating Profit = Rs. 1,54,000

**Question 101. **

**Solution 101Calculation of Operating Profit Ratio:-**Operating Profit Ratio = (Operating Profit)/(Revenue from Operations ) ×100

Operating Profit Ratio = (Rs.2,10,000)/(Rs.3,85,000)

Operating Profit Ratio = 54.55%

So, the Operating Profit Ratio is 54.55%

**Working Note:-Calculation of Net Revenue from Operations:-**Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 4,00,000 – Rs. 15,000

Net Revenue from Operations = Rs. 3,85,000

**Calculation of Cost of revenue from Operations:-**Cost of revenue from Operations = Opening Stock + Purchases – Purchases returns – Closing Stock

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 10,000 + Rs. 1,20,000 – Rs. 5,000 – Rs. 60,000

Cost of revenue from Operations = Rs. 65,000

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = Net Revenue from operations – Cost of Revenue from operations

Gross Profit = Rs. 70,000 – Rs. 40,000

Gross Profit = Rs. 1,10,000

**Calculation of Operating Expenses:-**Operating Expenses = Selling Expenses + Administrative Expenses

Operating Expenses = Rs. 70,000 + Rs. 40,000

Operating Expenses = Rs. 1,10,000

**Calculation of Operating Profit:-**Operating Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Expenses

Operating Profit = Rs. 3,20,000 – Rs. 1,10,000

Operating Profit = Rs. 2,10,000

**Question 102. **

**Solution 102(i) Calculation of Operating Profit Ratio:-**Operating Profit Ratio = (Operating Profit)/(Revenue from Operations ) ×100

Operating Profit Ratio = (Rs. 2,42,000)/(Rs. 8,00,000) ×100

Operating Profit Ratio = 30.25%

So, the Operating Profit Ratio is 30.25%

**Working Note:-Calculation of Operating profit:-**Operating profit = Gross profit – Other Operating Expenses

Operating profit = Rs. 3,00,000 – Rs. 58,000

Operating profit = Rs. 2,42,000

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = Revenue from Operations – Returns Inwards – Cost of Revenue from Operations

Gross Profit = Rs. 8,30,000 – Rs. 30,000 – Rs. 5,00,000

Gross Profit = Rs. 3,00,000

**Calculation of Other Operating Expenses:-**Other Operating Expenses = Office Expenses + Selling Expenses

Other Operating Expenses = Rs. 40,000 + Rs. 18,000

Other Operating Expenses = Rs. 58,000

**(ii) Calculation of Net Profit Ratio:-**Net Profit Ratio = (Net Profit)/(Revenue from Operations ) ×100

Net Profit Ratio = 2,16,000/(Rs. 8,00,000) ×100

Net Profit Ratio = 27%

**Calculation of Net Profit:-**Net Profit = Gross Profit – Indirect Expenses + Other Incomes

Net Profit = Rs. 3,00,000 – Rs. 40,000 – Rs. 18,000 – Rs. 12,000 – Rs. 24,000 + Rs. 10,000

Net Profit = Rs. 2,16,000

**Question 103. **

**Solution 103.(i) Calculation of Gross Profit Ratio:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit)/(Net Revenue from Operations ) ×100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs.8,40,000)/(Rs.30,00,000) ×100

Gross Profit Ratio = 28%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio is 28%

**Working Note:-**

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**

Gross Profit = Net Revenue from operations – Cost of Revenue from operations

Gross Profit = Rs. 30,00,000 – Rs. 21,60,000

Gross Profit = Rs. 8,40,000

**Calculation of Cost of Revenue from operations:-**Cost of Revenue from operations = Opening Inventory + Purchases + Direct expenses – Closing inventory

Cost of Revenue from operations = Rs. 3,60,000 + Rs. 18,30,000 + Rs. 4,10,000 – Rs. 4,40,000

Cost of Revenue from operations = Rs. 21,60,000

**(ii) Calculation of Operating Ratio:-**Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations+Operating Expenses )/(Net Revenue from Operations ) ×100

Operating Profit Ratio = (Rs.21,60,000 + Rs.1,50,000)/(Rs.30,00,000) ×100

Operating Profit Ratio = 77%

So, the Operating Profit Ratio is 77%

**Calculation of Operating Expenses:-**Operating Expenses = 5% of Revenue from Operations

Operating Expenses = 5% of Rs. 30,00,000

Operating Expenses = Rs. 1,50,000

**(iii) Calculation of Operating Ratio:-**Operating Profit Ratio = (Operating profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations )×100

Operating Profit Ratio = (Rs.6,90,000)/(Rs.30,00,000)×100

Operating Profit Ratio = 23%

So, the Operating Profit Ratio is 23%

**Calculation of Operating Profit:-**Operating Profit = Gross Profit – Operating expenses

Operating Profit = Rs. 8,40,000 – Rs. 1,50,000

Operating Profit = Rs. 6,90,000

**(iv) Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio:-**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 21,60,000 )/(Rs. 4,00,000)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 5.4 Times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 5.4 times.

**Calculation of Average Inventory:-**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/(2 )

Average Inventory = (Rs.3,60,000+Rs.4,40,000 )/(2 ) = (Rs.8,00,000 )/(2 )

Average Inventory = Rs. 4,00,000

**(v) Calculation of Working Capital Turnover ratio:-**Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Net Revenue from Operations )/(Working Capital )

Working capital Turnover Ratio = (Rs.30,00,000 )/(Rs.5,00,000)

Working capital Turnover Ratio = 6 Times

So, the Working capital Turnover Ratio is 6 Times.

**Calculation of Working Capital:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Working Capital = Rs. 7,00,000 – Rs. 2,00,000

Working Capital = Rs. 5,00,000

**Question 104. **

**Solution 104Calculation of Net Profit:-**Net Profit Ratio = (Net Profit )/(Net Revenue from Operations) ×100

Net Profit Ratio = (11,00,000 )/50,00,000 ×100

Net Profit Ratio = 22%

So, the Net Profit Ratio is 22%

**Working Note:-Calculation of Total revenue from operations:-**Cash revenue from operations were 10% of total revenue from operations.

Cash revenue from operations were Rs. 5,00,000.

Total revenue from operations = 5,00,000 × (100 )/10

Total revenue from operations = Rs. 50,00,000

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = (25 )/100 × Rs. 50,00,000

Gross Profit = Rs. 12,50,000

**Calculation of Net Profit:-**Net Profit = Gross Profit – Indirect Expenses

Net Profit = Rs. 12,50,000 – Rs. 1,50,000

Net Profit = Rs. 11,00,000

**Question 105.**

**Solution 105Calculation of Net Profit Ratio:-**Net Profit Ratio = (Net Profit)/(Revenue from Operations ) ×100

Net profit Ratio = (Rs.2,35,000)/(Rs.25,00,000) ×100

Net profit Ratio = 9.4%

So, the Net profit Ratio is 9.4%

**Working Note:-Calculation of Operating Profit Ratio:-**Operating Profit Ratio = 100 – Operating Ratio

Operating Profit Ratio = 100 – 90

Operating Profit Ratio = 10%

**Calculation of Operating Profit:-**Operating Profit = Rs. 25,00,000 ×(10 )/100

Operating Profit = Rs. 2,50,000

**Calculation of Net Profit:-**Net Profit = Operating Profit – Non Operating Expenses + Non-operating Income

Net Profit = Rs. 2,50,000 – Rs. 25,000 – Rs. 30,000 + Rs. 40,000

Net Profit = Rs. 2,35,000

**Question 106. **

**Solution 106.Calculation of Return on Capital Employed:-**Return on Capital Employed = (Net Profit before Interest & Tax)/(Capital Employed) ×100

Return on Capital Employed = (Rs. 12,00,000)/(Rs. 75,00,000) ×100

Return on Capital Employed = 16%

So, the Return on Capital Employed is 16%

**Working Note:-**Interest on Loan = Rs. 10,00,000 × 8%

Interest on Loan = Rs. 80,000

Interest on Debentures = Rs. 12,00,000 × 10%

Interest on Debentures = Rs. 1,20,000

**Calculation of Net Profit before interest & Tax:-**Net Profit before Interest & Tax = Profit as stated in the Balance Sheet + Interest on Loan + Interest on Debentures

Net Profit before Interest & Tax = Rs. 10,00,000 + Rs. 80,000 + Rs. 1,20,000

Net Profit before Interest & Tax = Rs. 12,00,000

**Calculation of Capital Employed:-**Capital Employed = Share Capital + Reserves + 8% Loan + 10% Debentures + Profit for the year

Capital Employed = Rs. 30,00,000 + Rs. 13,00,000 + Rs. 10,00,000 + Rs. 12,00,000 + Rs. 10,00,000

Capital Employed = Rs. 75,00,000

**Point in Mind:-**We can calculate capital employed by this method also.

**Calculation of Capital Employed:-**Capital Employed = Non-Current Assets + Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Capital Employed = Fixed Assets + Inventory + Trade Receivables + Cash and Cash Equivalents – Trade Payables

Capital Employed = 55,00,000 + 12,00,000 + 9,00,000 + 3,00,000 – 4,00,000

Capital Employed = 79,00,000 – 4,00,000

Capital Employed = 75,00,000

**Question 107. **

**Solution 107Calculation of Return on Capital Employed:-**Return on Capital Employed = (Net Profit before Interest & Tax)/(Capital Employed) ×100

Return on Capital Employed = (Rs.3,00,000)/(Rs.19,50,000) ×100

Return on Capital Employed = 15.38%

So, the Return on Capital Employed is 15.38%.

**Working Note:-**Interest = Rs. 5,00,000 × 10%

Interest = 50,000

**Calculation of Net Profit before Interest & Tax:**Net Profit before interest & tax = Net Profit before tax + Interest

Net Profit before interest & tax = Rs. 2,50,000 + 50,000

Net Profit before interest & tax = Rs. 3,00,000

**Calculation of Capital Employed:-**Capital Employed = Share Capital + Reserves + Long term Borrowings + Long Term Provisions

Capital Employed = Rs. 7,20,000 + Rs. 6,50,000 + Rs. 5,00,000 + Rs. 80,000

Capital Employed = Rs. 19,50,000

**Question 108. **

**Solution 108Calculation of Return on Investment:-**Return on Investment = (Net Profit before Interest & Tax)/(Capital Employed) × 100

Return on Investment =(Rs.80,000)/(Rs.4,00,000) ×100

Return on Investment = 20%

So, the Return on Investment is 20%

**Working Note:-**Interest = Rs. 1,00,000 × 15%

Interest = 15,000

**Calculation of Net Profit before interest & tax:-**Net Profit before interest & tax = Profit after interest but before tax + Interest

Net Profit before interest & tax = 65,000 + 15,000

Net Profit before interest & tax = 80,000

**Calculation of Capital Employed:-**Capital Employed = Shareholder’s Fund + Long term Debts

Capital Employed = Rs. 3,00,000 + Rs. 1,00,000

Capital Employed = Rs. 4,00,000

**Question 109. **

**Solution 109Calculation of Return on Investment:-**Return on Investment = (Net Profit before Interest & Tax)/(Capital Employed) ×100

Return on Investment = (Rs.6,45,000)/(Rs.30,00,000) ×100

Return on Investment = 21.5%

So, the Return on Investment is 21.5%

**Working Note:-**It is given that the Net Profit After Tax is Rs. 4,20,000.

Net Profit before Tax = 4,20,000 ×100/(Rs.70)

Net Profit before Tax = Rs. 6,00,000

Net Profit before Interest and tax = Rs. 6,00,000 + Rs. 45,000

Net Profit before Interest and tax = Rs. 6,45,000

**Calculation of Capital Employed:-**Capital Employed = Non-Current Assets + Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Capital Employed = Fixed Assets + Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Capital Employed = Rs. 22,00,000 + Rs. 12,00,000 – Rs. 4,00,000

Capital Employed = Rs. 30,00,000

**Question 110. **

**Solution 110:Calculation of Return on Capital Employed:-**Return on Capital Employed = (Net Profit before Interest & Tax)/(Capital Employed) ×100

Return on Capital employed = (Rs. 1,80,000)/(Rs. 7,50,000) ×100

Return on Capital employed = 24%

So, the Return on Capital employed is 24%

**Working Note:-Calculation of Net Profit before Interest & Tax:**Net Profit before Interest & Tax = Gross Profit – Administration Expenses – Selling Expenses

Net Profit before Interest & Tax = Rs. 2,70,000 – Rs. 60,000 – Rs. 30,000

Net Profit before Interest & Tax = Rs. 1,80,000

**Calculation of Capital Employed:-**Capital Employed = Non-Current Assets + Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Capital Employed = Rs. 6,00,000 + Rs. 2,00,000 – Rs. 50,000

Capital Employed = Rs. 7,50,000

**Question 111. **

**Solution 111:Calculation of Return on Capital Employed:-**Return on Capital Employed = (Net Profit before Interest & Tax)/(Capital Employed) ×100

Return on Capital employed = (Rs.75,000)/(Rs.3,00,000) ×100

Return on Capital employed = 25%

So, the Return on Capital employed is 25%

**Calculation of Cost of revenue from operations:-**Cost of revenue from operations = Opening Inventory + purchases + Carriage Inwards – Closing Inventory

Cost of revenue from operations = Rs. 40,000 + Rs. 6,00,000 + Rs. 15,000 – Rs. 60,000

Cost of revenue from operations = Rs. 5,95,000

**Calculation of Gross profit:-**Gross Profit = Revenue from Operations – Cost of Revenue from Operations

Gross profit = Rs. 7,00,000 – Rs. 5,95,000

Gross profit = Rs. 1,05,000

**Calculation of Net Profit before Interest:-**Net Profit before Interest = Gross profit- Indirect Expenses

Net profit before interest = Gross profit – Office Expenses

Net profit before interest = Rs. 1,05,000 – Rs. 30,000

Net profit before interest = Rs. 75,000

**Calculation of Capital Employed:-**Capital Employed = Non- Capital Assets + Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Capital Employed = Rs. 2,00,000 + Rs. 1,50,000 – RS, 50,000

Capital Employed = Rs. 3,00,000

**Question 112. **

**Solution 112:Calculation of Return on Capital Employed:-**Return on Capital Employed = (Net Profit before Interest & Tax)/(Capital Employed) ×100

Return on Capital employed =(Rs.2,40,000)/(Rs.12,00,000) ×100

Return on Capital Employed = 20%

So, the Return on Capital Employed is 20%

**Working Note:-Calculation of Net Profit before Interest and Tax:-**Net Profit Tax = Rs. 96,000

Net Profit before Interest and Tax = Rs. 96,000 × 100/50

Net Profit before Tax = Rs. 1,92,000

Interest on Loan = Rs. 36,000

Interest on Debentures = Rs. 12,000

Net Profit before Interest and Tax = Rs. 1,92,000 + Rs. 36,000 + Rs. 12,000

Net Profit before Interest and Tax = Rs. 2,40,000

**Calculation of Capital Employed:-**Capital Employed = Shareholder’s Funds + Non- Current Liabilities

Capital Employed = Equity Capital + Pref. Capital + Reserve + Current Year’s Profit + 15% Loans + 10% Debentures

Capital Employed = Rs. 5,00,000 + Rs. 1,00,000 – RS, 1,44,000 + Rs. 96,000 + Rs. 2,40,000 + Rs. 1,20,000

Capital Employed = Rs. 12,00,000

**Question 113. **

**Solution 113Calculation of Return on Investment:-**Return on Investment = (Net Profit before Interest & Tax)/(Capital Employed) × 100

25% = (Net Profit before Interest & Tax)/30,00,000 × 100

25% × Rs. 30,00,000 = Net Profit before Interest & Tax

Rs. 7,50,000 = Net Profit before Interest & Tax

So, the Net Profit before interest and Tax is Rs. 7,50,000.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Net Gain to Shareholders:-**Interest Paid = 30,00,000 × 12%

Interest Paid = 3,60,000

Tax Paid = Rs. 3,90,000 × 40%

Tax Paid Rate of Tax = Rs. 1,56,000

Net gain to shareholders = Net Profit before Interest and Tax – Interest Paid – Tax Paid

Net gain to shareholders = Rs. 7,50,000 – Rs. 3,60,000 – Rs. 1,56,000

Net gain to shareholders = 2,34,000

**Question 114. **

**Solution 114:Calculation of Return on Capital Employed:-**Return on Capital Employed = (Net Profit before Interest & Tax)/(Capital Employed) ×100

Return on Investment =(Rs.3,12,000)/(Rs.6,80,000) ×100

Return on Investment = 45.88%

So, the Return on Investment is 45.88%.

**Working Note:-**

**Calculation of Capital Employed:-**

Capital Employed = Equity Share Capital + Preference Share Capital + Reserves + Long Term Loans

Capital Employed = Rs. 2,30,000 + Rs. 2,00,000 + Rs. 1,70,000 + Rs. 80,000

Capital Employed = Rs. 6,80,000

**Calculation of Net Profit before Tax:-**Net profit before tax = Rs. 1,80,000 × 100/60

Net profit before tax = Rs. 3,00,000

**Question 115. **

**Solution 115:(i) Calculation of Liquid Ratio:-**Liquid Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Liquid Ratio = (Rs.1,65,00,000)/(Rs.2,20,00,000)

Liquid Ratio = 0.75 : 1

So, the Liquid Ratio is 0.75 : 1.

**Calculation of Liquid Assets:-**Liquid Assets = Current Assets – Inventories

Liquid Assets = Rs. 3,96,00,000 – Rs. 2,31,00,000

Liquid Assets = Rs. 1,65,00,000

**Calculation of Liquid Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = Current Assets – Net Working Capital

Current Liabilities = Rs3,96,00,000 – Rs. 1,76,00,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 2,20,00,000

**(ii) Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit)/(Revenue from Operations) ×100

Gross Profit Ratio =(Rs.4,80,00,000)/(Rs.15,00,00,000)×100

Gross Profit Ratio = 32%

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = Rs. 15,00,00,000 – Rs. 10,20,00,000

Gross Profit = Rs. 4,80,00,000

**(iii) Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit)/(Revenue from Operations) ×100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs.10,20,00,000+Rs.1,80,00,000)/(Rs.15,00,00,000) ×100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs.12,00,00,000)/(Rs.15,00,00,000) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = 80%

Gross Profit Ratio = 32%

**Question 116. **

**Solution 116:(i) Calculation of Operating Ratio:-**Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations+Operating expenses)/(Net Revenuue from Operations)×100

Operating Ratio = (Rs.6,80,000+Rs.20,000)/(Rs.10,00,000) ×100

Operating Ratio = 70%

So, the Operating Ratio is 70%.

**(2) Calculation of Current Ratio;**Formula of Current Ratio is

Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio =(Rs.6,00,000)/(Rs.3,00,000)

Current Ratio = 2:1

Current Assets = Closing Inventory + other Current Assets

Current Assets = RS. 1,00,000 + Rs. 5,00,000 = Rs. 6,00,000

So, the Current Ratio is 2:1.

**(3) Calculation of Gross Profit Ratio;**Formula of Gross Profit Ratio is

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit)/(Revenue from Operations) ×100

Gross Profit Ratio = (Rs.3,20,000)/(Rs.10,00,000) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio = 32%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio is 32%

**Calculation of Gross Profit:-**Gross Profit = Sales from Operations – Cost of Sales from Operations

Gross Profit = Rs. 10,00,000 – Rs. 6,80,000

Gross Profit = Rs. 3,20,000

**(4) Calculation of Inventory Turnover Ratio;**Formula of Inventory Turnover Ratio is

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

Average Inventory =( Rs.80,000+Rs.1,00,000)/( 2)

Average Inventory = Rs. 90,000

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is Rs. 90,000.

**(4) Calculation of Debt Equity Ratio;**Formula of Debt Equity Ratio is

Debt Equity Ratio = (Debt )/(Equity ) Or (Long term Loans )/(Shareholder^’ sFunds)

Debt Equity Ratio = (Rs.6,00,000 )/(RS.9,00,000)

Debt Equity Ratio = .67:1

**Calculation of Shareholder’s Funds:-**Shareholder’s Funds = Equity Share Capital + Preference Share Capital + General Reserve

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 5,00,000 + Rs. 3,00,000 + Rs. 1,00,000

Shareholder’s Funds = Rs. 9,00,000

So, the Debt Equity Ratio : .67:1

**Question 117. **

**Solution117Calculate the Current Ratio and Quick Ratio:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio = (Rs.11,52,000)/(Rs.4,80,000)

Current Ratio = 2.4 : 1

So, the Current Ratio is 2.4 :1.

**Calculation of Quick Ratio:-**Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Quick Ratio = (Rs.7,20,000)/(Rs.4,80,000)

Quick Ratio = 1.5:1

So, the Quick Ratio is 1.5:1.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Inventory + Trade Receivables + cash & Cash Equivalents + Prepaid exp.

Current Assets = Rs. 4,20,000 – Rs. 6,30,000 + Rs. 90,000 – Rs. 12,000

Current Assets = Rs. 11,52,000

**Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = Trade Payables + Outstanding Expenses + Income Tax Provision

Current Liabilities = Rs. 4,10,000 + Rs. 20,000 + Rs. 50,000

Current Liabilities = Rs.4,80,000

**Calculation of Current Assets:-**Liquid Assets = Trade Receivables + Cash & Cash Equivalents

Liquid Assets = RS. 6,30,000 + Rs. 90,000

Liquid Assets = Rs. 7,20,000

**Question 118. **

**Solution118**Liquidity Ratios can be used to determine a company’s short-term financial status.

The following two ratios are included in the Liquidity Ratio:

(a) Current Ratio and (b) Quick Ratio

**(a) Calculation of Current Ratio:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio = (Rs.18,00,000)/(Rs.6,00,000)

Current Ratio = 3 : 1

So, the Current Ratio is 3:1

**(b) Calculation of Quick Ratio:-**Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Quick Ratio = (Rs.10,20,000)/(Rs.6,00,000)

Quick Ratio = 1.7:1

So, the Quick Ratio is 1.7:1.

**Comments:**The company’s short-term financial situation is strong since its current ratio is 3:1, which is higher than the optimal ratio of 2:1. In the same way, the fast ratio is 1.7:1, which is higher than the optimal 1:1 ratio.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Inventory + Trade Receivables + cash & Cash Equivalents + Expenses paid in Advance

Current Assets = Rs. 7,60,000 – Rs. 8,10,000 + Rs. 2,10,000 – Rs. 20,000

Current Assets = Rs. 18,00,000

**Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = 11% Debentures + Bank Overdraft + Trade Payables + Provision for Taxation

Current Liabilities = Rs. 1,50,000 + Rs. 60,000 + Rs. 3,20,000 + Rs. 70,000

Current Liabilities = Rs.6,00,000

**Calculation of Liquid Assets:-**Liquid Assets = Trade Receivables + Cash & Cash Equivalents

Liquid Assets = RS. 8,10,000 + Rs. 2,10,000

Liquid Assets = Rs. 10,20,000

**Question 119. **

**Solution119**Liquidity Ratios can be used to assess a company’s short-term financial situation. The following two ratios are examples of liquidity ratios: (a)Current Ratio and (b) Quick Ratio

**Comments:**The company’s short-term financial situation is unsatisfactory due to its Current Ratio of 1.85:1, which is less than the optimal ratio of 2:1. Similarly, the quick ratio is.8:1, which is higher than the optimal 1:1 ratio.

**Question 120. **

**Solution 120Calculate the revised current ratio:**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

2.5 Times = (Current Assets )/(Rs.80,000 (Given))

Current Assets = Rs. 80,000 × 2.5

Current Assets = Rs. 2,00,000

Purchases made on credit result in a rise in inventory, which raises Current Assets. However, it will result in a rise in trade payables, which is a component of current liabilities. As a result, after purchasing products on credit for Rs. 40,000:

Revised Current Ratio = (Rs.2,40,000 )/(Rs.1,20,000 )

Revised Current Ratio = 2:1

So, the Revised Current Ratio is 2:1.

**Working Note:-**Current Ratio = Rs. 2,00,000 + Rs. 40,000

Current Ratio = Rs. 2,40,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 80,000 + Rs. 40,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 1,20,000

**Question 121. **

**Solution 121:Calculate the revised current ratio:**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

1.8 Times = (Rs.3,06,000 (Given ))/(Current Liabilities)

Current Liabilities = (Rs.3,06,000)/1.8

Current Liabilities = Rs. 1,70,000.

The issuance of new equity shares increases the bank’s assets, which leads to a rise in current assets. As a result, following the issuance of new equity shares worth Rs. 1,00,00

Current Assets = Rs. 3,06,000 + Rs. 1,00,000

Current Assets = Rs. 4,06,000

Revised Current Ratio = (Rs.4,06,000 )/(Rs.1,70,000 )

Revised Current Ratio = 2.388:1

So, the Revised Current Ratio is 2.388:1.

**Question 122. **.

**Solution122**

**Question 123. **

**Solution123.**

**Question 124. **

**Solution124**

**Question 125. **

**Solution125Calculation of Current ratio**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio = (Rs.1,00,000)/(Rs.20,000)

Current Ratio = 5:1

So, the Current Ratio is 5:1.

**Working Note:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Rs. 3,00,000 = Rs. 5,00,000 – Current Liabilities

Current Assets = Rs. 80,000 – Rs. 20,000

Current Assets = Rs. 1,00,000

**Question 126.**

**Solution126Calculation of Current ratio:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio = (Rs.5,00,000)/(Rs.2,00,000)

Current Ratio = 2.5:1

So, the Current ratio is 2.5:1

**Working Note:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Rs. 80,000 (Given) = Current Assets – Rs. 20,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 5,00,000 – Rs. 3,00,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 2,00,000

So, the Current Ratio is 2.5:1.

**Question 127. Current Ratio 3:1; Current Assets Rs. 60,000. Calculate Current Liabilities.**

**Solution 127Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

3 = (Rs.60,000 )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Liabilities = (Rs.60,000 )/3

Current Liabilities = Rs. 20,000

So, the Current Liabilities are Rs. 20,000.

**Question 128. **

**Solution128Calculation of Current AssetsBy given information:**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

4.2 (Given) = (Current Assets )/(Rs.2,00,000 (Given))

Current Assets = Rs. 2,00,000 ×4.2

= Rs. 8,40,000

So, the Current Assets is Rs. 8,40,000.

**Question 129. **

**Solution129Calculation of Current RatioBy given information:**

Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

2 = (Liquid Assets )/(Rs.2,00,000 )

Liquid Assets =Rs.2,00,000 ×2

= Rs. 4,00,000

Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Assets = Liquid Assets + Inventory

= RS. 4,00,000 + RS. 1,60,000

= Rs. 5,60,000

Current Ratio =(Rs.5,60,000 )/(Rs.2,00,000 )= 2.8:1

So, the Current Ratio is 2.8:1.

**Question 130. **

**Solution 130Calculate the Current Ratio.**

By using the formula of Liquid Assets.

Liquid Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Liquid Ratio = 7.3

It is given that the Current Liabilities is 3 and Liquid Assets is 7.

It is given that the Current Liabilities are RS. 75,000

Liquid Assets = (7 )/3 × RS. 75,000

Liquid Assets = Rs. 1,75,000

Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio = (Rs.2,00,000 )/(Rs.75,000 )

Current Ratio = 2.67:1

So the Current ratio is: 2.67:1.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Liquid Assets + Inventory

Current Assets = Rs. 1,75,000 + Rs. 25,000

Current Assets = Rs. 2,00,000

**Question 131. **

**Solution131Calculate the Current Ratio.**By using the Formula of Quick Ratio

Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

1.6 = (Rs.4,80,000 )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Liabilities =(Rs.4,80,000)/1.6 = Rs. 3,00,000

Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Ratio =(Rs.6,30,000 )/(Rs.3,00,000 )

Current Ratio = 2.1:1

So, the Current Ratio is 2.1:1.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Liquid Assets + Inventory

Current Assets = Rs. 4,80,000 + Rs. 1,50,000

Current Assets = Rs. 6,30,000

**Question 132. **

**Solution132Calculate the Current Liabilities:**Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

3 = (Rs.2,10,000 )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Liabilities =(Rs.2,10,000)/3 = Rs. 70,000

So, the Current Liabilities are Rs. 70,000.

**Working Note:-**Liquid Assets = Current Assets – Inventory

Liquid Assets = Rs. 2,50,000 -Rs. 40,000

Liquid Assets = Rs. 2,10,000

**Question 133.**

**Solution133****Calculate the Current Assets:**Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

2.2 (Given) = (Liquid Assets )/(Rs. 40,000 )

Liquid assets = Rs. 40,000 × 2.2 = Rs. 88,000

Current Assets = Liquid Assets + Inventory

= RS. 88,000 + RS. 32,000

= Rs. 1,20,000

So, the Current Assets is Rs. 1,20,000

**Question 134. **

**Solution134.Calculate the Quick Ratio:**Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Quick Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Quick Ratio =(RS.45,000 )/(RS.30,000) = 1.5:1

So, the Quick Ratio is 1.5:1.

**Working Note:-Calculation of Liquid Assets:-**Liquid Assets = Current Assets – Inventory

Liquid Assets = Rs. 1,00,000- Rs. 55,000

Liquid Assets = Rs. 45,000

**Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = Current Assets-working Capital

Current Liabilities = Rs. 1,00,000 – Rs. 70,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 30,000

**Question 135..**

**Solution135Calculate the Quick Ratio:**Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Quick Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Quick Ratio = (RS.1,60,000 )/(RS.80,000)

Quick Ratio = 2:1

So, the Quick Ratio is 2:1.

**Calculation of Liquid Assets:-**Liquid Assets = Current Assets – Inventory- Prepaid Expenses

Liquid Assets = Rs. 2,50,000- Rs. 85,000- Rs. 5,000

Liquid Assets = Rs. 1,60,000

**Calculation of Current Assets:-**Current Assets = Current Liabilities + Working Capital

Current Assets = Rs. 80,000 + Rs. 1,70,000

Current Assets = Rs. 2,50,000

**Question 136. **

**Solution136Calculate the Current Assets, Current Liabilities, Quick Ratio.**Working Capital is 4,00,000,

Current Assets = 3/2 × Rs. 4,00,000

Current Assets = Rs. 6,00,000

So, the Current Assets is Rs. 6,00,000

**Calculation of Current Liabilities:-**Current Liabilities = Current Assets – Working Capital

Current Liabilities = Rs. 6,00,000 – Rs. 4,00,000

Current Liabilities = Rs. 2,00,000

Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Liquid Assets = Current Assets – Inventory

Liquid Assets = Rs. 6,00,000 – Rs. 2,50,000

Liquid Assets = Rs. 3,50,000

Quick Ratio = (Rs.3,50,000 )/(Rs.2,00,000)

Quick Ratio = 1.75:1

So, the Current Assets: Rs. 6,00,000;

Current Liabilities Rs. 2,00,000

Quick Ratio is 1.75:1.

**Question 137. **

**Solution137.Calculate the Current Assets, Current Liabilities; Quick Ratio.**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Current Ratio = 3.6:1 Hence, based on current ratio the working capital is

3.6 – 1=2.6

If Working Capital is 2.6, Current Assets =3.6

If working Capital is 1, Current Assets = 3.6/2.6

It is given that working Capital is 84,500,

Current Assets = 3.6/2.6 × Rs. 84,500

Current Assets = Rs. 1,17,000

Current Liabilities = Current Assets – Working Capital

Current Liabilities = Rs. 1,17,000 – Rs.84,000

Current Liabilities =Rs. 32,500

Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Liquid Assets = Current Assets – Inventory

= Rs. 1,17,000 – Rs. 50,000

= Rs. 3,50,000

Quick Ratio = (Rs.67,000 )/(Rs.32,500) = 2.06:1

So, the Current Assets is Rs. 1,17,000

Current Liabilities is Rs. 32,500;

Quick Ratio is 2.06:1.

**Question 138. **

**Solution 138Calculate the Inventory’s value**Current Ratio = 3:1, therefore,

If Current Liabilities are 2, Current Assets =5

If Current Liabilities are 1, Current Assets = 5/2

If working Capital is 5,60,000,

Current Assets = 5/2×Rs.5,60,000

Current Assets = Rs. 14,00,000

Quick Ratio = 2:1, therefore,

If Current Liabilities are 1, Liquid Assets =5

If Current Liabilities are Rs. 55,60,000, Liquid Assets = 5/2 ×Rs.5,60,000

= Rs. 11,20,000

Inventory = Current Assets – Liquid Assets

= Rs. 14,00,000 – Rs. 11,20,000

= Rs. 2,80,000

So, the answer is Rs. 2,80,000 as Inventory

**Question 139.**

**Solution139Calculate the Current Assets, Liquid Assets and Inventory:**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

3 (Given) = (Current Assets )/(Rs.1,20,000 (Given))

Current Assets Rs. 1,20,000 × 3 = Rs. 3,60,000

Acid Test Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Liquid Assets = Rs. 1,20,000 × 0.9 = Rs. 1,08,000

Inventory = Current Assets – liquid Assets

= Rs. 3,60,000 – Rs. 1,08,000

= Rs. 2,52,000

So, the Current Assets Rs. 3,60,000

, Liquid Assets is Rs. 1,08,000

And Inventories is RS. 2,52,000.

**Question 140. **

**Solution140Calculate the Current Liabilities, Liquid Assets and Inventory:**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

2.5 = (Rs. 5,00,000 )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Liabilities =(Rs. 5,00,000 )/2.5

= Rs. 2,00,000

Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

1 = (Liquid Assets )/(Rs.2,00,000)

Liquid Assets = Rs.2,00,000 × 1 = Rs. 2,00,000

Inventory = Current Assets – liquid Assets

= Rs. 5,00,000 – Rs. 2,00,000

= Rs. 3,00,000

So, the Current Liabilities Rs. 2,00,000

, Liquid Assets is Rs. 2,00,000

And Inventories is RS. 3,00,000

**Question 141. **

**Solution141Calculate the Current Assets, Current Liabilities and Inventory:**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Current Ratio = 3:1 Hence, based on current ratio the working capital is 3-1=2

If Working Capital is 2, Current Assets =3

If working Capital is 1, Current Assets = 3/2

If working Capital is 1,50,000,

Current Assets = 3/2×Rs.1,50,000

= Rs. 2,25,000

Current Liabilities = Current Assets – Working Capital

= Rs. 2,25,000 – Rs.1,50,000

=Rs. 75,000

Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

1.2 = (Liquid Assets )/(Rs.75,000)

Liquid Assets = Rs.75,000 ×1.2

Rs. 90,000

Inventory = Current Assets – liquid Assets

= Rs. 2,25,000 – Rs. 90,000

= Rs. 1,35,000

So, the Current Assets is Rs. 2,25,000

Current Liabilities Rs. 75,000

and Inventory is Rs. 1,35,000

**Question 142. **

**Solution142:Calculate the Current Assets, Current Liabilities and Inventory**By the help of given value of working capital= RS. 36,000 and Current Ratio is 2.2:1 we find current Assets Value and then current liabilities

Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Current Ratio = 2.2:1, therefore, based on current ratio the working capital is 2.2-1=1.2

If Working Capital is 1.2, Current Assets =2.2

If working Capital is 1, Current Assets = 2.2/1.2

If working Capital is 36,000,

Current Assets = 2.2/1.2×Rs.36,000

= Rs. 66,000

Current Liabilities = Current Assets – Working Capital

= Rs. 66,000 – Rs.36,000

=Rs. 30,000

Acid Test Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

.95 (Given) = (Liquid Assets )/(Rs.30,000)

Liquid Assets = Rs.30,000 ×.95

Rs. 28,500

Inventory = Current Assets – liquid Assets

= Rs. 66,000 – Rs. 28,500

= Rs. 37,500

So, the Current Assets is Rs. 66,000

Current Liabilities Rs. 30,000 and Inventory is Rs. 37,500

**Question 143.**

**Solution143Calculation of Current Assets; Current Liabilities and quick Assets:**The given information: Current Ratio is 3.5

Quick Ratio is 2.

Difference between Current ratio and Quick Ratio is inventories.

Hence, Inventories is 3.5 – 2=1.5

If Inventory is 1.5, Current Assets =3.5

If Inventory is 1, Current Assets = 3.5/1.5

If Inventory is 24,000, Current Assets = 3.5/1.5×Rs.24,000

= Rs. 56,000

Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

3.5 = (Rs.56,000 )/(Current Liabilities) = Rs. 16,000

Current Liabilities = (Rs.56,000 )/3.5 = Rs. 16,000

Quick Assets = Current Assets – Inventory

= Rs. 56,000 – Rs. 24,000

= Rs. 32,000

So, the Current Assets is Rs, 56,000

Current Liabilities is Rs. 16,000

and Quick Assets is Rs. 32,000.

**Question 144. **

**Solution144Calculation of Current Assets; Current Liabilities and Liquid Assets:**The given information: Current Ratio= 2.8

Liquid Ratio = 1.6.

Difference between Current ratio and Liquid Ratio is inventory.

Hence, Inventories is 2.8 – 1.6 = 1.2.

If Inventory is 2, Current Assets =2.8

If Inventory is 1, Current Assets = 2.8/1.2

If Inventory is 48,000,

Current Assets = 2.8/1.2×Rs.48,000

= Rs. 1,12,000

Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

2.8 = (Rs. 1,12,000)/(Current Liabilities) = Rs. 16,000

Current Liabilities = (Rs.1,12,000 )/2.8 = Rs. 40,000

Liquid Assets = Current Assets – Inventory

= Rs. 1,12,000 – Rs. 48,000

= Rs. 64,000

So, the Current Assets is Rs, 1,12,000

Current Liabilities is Rs. 40,000

and Liquid Assets is Rs. 64,000.

**Question 145. **

**Solution145:Calculation of Acid test ratio:**By using formula Current Ratio

Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

2.6 = (Rs. 1,95,000 )/(Current Liabilities) = Rs. 16,000

Current Liabilities = (Rs.1,95,000 )/2.6 = Rs. 75,000

Liquid Assets = Current Assets – Inventory

= Rs. 1,95,000 – Rs. 90,000

= Rs. 1,05,000

Acid Test Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

= (Rs.1,05,000)/(Rs.75,000)= 1.4:1

So, the Acid test Ratio is 1.4:1.

**Question 146. **

**Solution146To find the amount of current liability we use formula of:**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

1.5 = (Rs. 9,00,000 )/(Current Liabilities) = Rs. 16,000

Current Liabilities = (Rs.9,00,000 )/1.5 = Rs. 6,00,000

Current Liabilities must be charged in order to raise the Current Ratio. Payment of Existing Liabilities, on the other hand, would result in an equal decrease of both current assets and current liabilities. Assume that the payment amount is x. Following the payment of Rs. x in Current Liabilities.

Current Liabilities =Rs. 6,00,000 – x

Current Assets = Rs. 9,00,000 – x

Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

2 (Ratio to be maintained) = (Rs.9,00,000-x)/(Rs.6,00,000-x)

Rs. 12,00,000 – 2x = Rs. 9,00,000 – x

x = Rs. 3,00,000

Hence, Rs. 3,00,000 of Current Liabilities, must be paid maintain the Current Ratio of 2:1.

**Question 147. **

**Solution 147Calculation of the Debt-Equity Ratio**Debt- Equity Ratio = (Debt )/( Equity ) or (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Shareholder’s Fund =Equity Share Capital + General Reserve + Profit & Loss Balance

= RS. 1,00,000 + RS. 45,000 + Rs. 30,000

=Rs. 1,75,000

=(Rs.75,000)/( Rs.1,75,000)= 0.43:1

So, the Debt- Equity Ratio is 0.43:1

**Question 148. **

**Solution148Calculation of the Debt-Equity Ratio**

Debt- Equity Ratio = (Debt )/( Equity ) or (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Long Term Debts =12% debentures + Long Term Loans

= RS. 2,80,000 + RS. 1,10,000

=Rs. 3,90,000

Shareholder’s funds = Share Capital + General Reserve

= RS. 2,50,000 + Rs. 25,000

= Rs. 2,75,000

=(Rs.3,90,000)/( Rs.2,75,000)= 1.42:1

So, the Debt- Equity Ratio is 1.42:1

**Calculation of the Current ratio:**Current Ratio = (Current Assets )/( Curremt Liabilities)

Current Assets = Trade Receivables + Cash & Cash Equivalents

=RS. 60,000 + RS. 30,000

= RS. 90,000

Current Ratio = (RS.90,000)/( RS.60,000)= 1.5:1

So, the current ratio is 1.5:1.

**Question 149. **

**Solution149.Calculation of the Debt-Equity Ratio**Debt- Equity Ratio = (Debt )/( Equity ) or (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Long Term Debts =10% debentures + Loan from IDBI

= RS. 3,00,000 + RS. 12,00,000

=Rs. 15,00,000

Shareholder’s funds = Equity Share Capital + General Reserve + Securities Premium Reserve – Profit & Loss Balance

= RS. 20,00,000 + Rs. 10,00,000 + Rs. 6,00,000 – Rs. 1,00,000

= Rs. 35,00,000

Debt- Equity Ratio =(Rs.15,00,000)/( Rs.35,00,000)= 0.43:1

So, the Debt- Equity Ratio is 0.43:1

**Calculation of the Proprietary ratio:**Proprietary Ratio = (Shareholder^’ sFunds)/( Total Assets )×100

Total Assets = Fixed Assets + Current Assets

= Rs. 40,00,000 + RS. 20,00,000

= Rs. 60,00,000

Proprietary Ratio = (RS.35,00,000)/( RS.60,00,000)×100= 58.33%

So, the Proprietary Ratio is 58.33%

**Question 150. **

**Solution 150.Calculation of the Current ratio:**Current Ratio = (current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Assets = Inventory + Prepaid Expenses + Other Current Assets

= RS. 30,000 + RS. 2,000 + RS. 50,000

= RS. 82,000

Current Ratio = (Rs.82,000)/(Rs.40,000)= 2.05:1

So, the Current Ratio is 2.05:1

**Calculation of the Quick Ratio:**Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

=(other current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

=(RS.50,000 )/(RS.40,000) = 1.25:1

So, the Quick Ratio is 1.25:1

**Calculation of the Debt-Equity Ratio**Debt- Equity Ratio = (Debt )/( Equity ) or (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Long Term Debts =12% debentures = RS. 30,000

Shareholder’s funds = Equity Share Capital + Profit & Loss Balance

= RS. 10,000 + Rs. 1,00,000

= Rs. 1,10,000

Debt- Equity Ratio =(Rs.30,000)/( Rs.1,10,000)= 0.27:1

So, the Debt- Equity Ratio is 0.27:1

**Calculation of the Proprietary ratio:**Proprietary Ratio = (Shareholder^’ sFunds)/( Total Assets )×100

Total Assets = Current Assets + Fixed Assets + Long Term Investments

= Rs. 82,000 + RS. 83,000 Rs. 15,000

= Rs. 1,80,000

Proprietary Ratio = (RS.1,10,000)/( RS.1,80,000)×100= 61.11%

So, the Proprietary Ratio is 61.11%

**Question 151. **

Net Profit after Payment of interest and income tax amounted to Rs. 60,000. Rate of Income Tax 50%.

Calculate the following ratios and give your comments: –

i. Current Ratio;

ii. Proprietary Ratio;

iii. Total Assets to Debt Ratio;

iv. Interest Coverage Ratio.

**Solution 151(1) Calculation of Current Ratio:**Formula for Current Ratio:

Current Ratio = (current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Assets = Inventory + cash & Cash Equivalents + Short term Investments

Current Assets = Rs. 90,000 + Rs. 1,20,000 + Rs. 40,000

Current Assets = Rs. 2,50,000

Current Liabilities

Current Liabilities = Trade payables + Bank Overdraft

= Rs. 1,20,000 + Rs. 60,000 = Rs. 1,80,000

Current Ratio = (Rs.2,50,000)/(Rs.1,80,000)= 1.39:1

**Comment**: The ideal ratio 2:1. Current ratio of the company is below the ideal ratio so the position of the company by short term financial is not satisfactory.

So, the current ratio is 1.39:1.

**(2) Calculation of Proprietary Ratio:Formula for Proprietary Ratio:**Proprietary Ratio = (Shareholder^’ sFunds)/( Total Assets )×100

Shareholder’s Funds = Share Capital + Reserve & Surplus

= Rs. 2,40,000 + Rs. 1,40,000

= Rs. 3,80,000.

Total Assets = Non- Current Assets + Current Assets

= Tangible Fixed Assets + Intangible Fixed Assets + Inventory + Cash & Cash Equivalents + Short term Investments

= Rs. 4,20,000 + RS. 50,000 + Rs. 90,000 + Rs. 1,20,000 + Rs. 40,000

= Rs. 7,20,000

Proprietary Ratio = (RS.3,80,000)/( RS.7,20,000)×100= 52.78%

**Comment:**The position of the company by short term financial is satisfactory because total assets are 52.78% of the acquired by the company equity.

So, the Proprietary Ratio is 52.78%

**(3) Calculation of Total Assets to debt Ratio:**Formula for Total Assets to debt Ratio:

Total Assets to debt Ratio =(Total Assets )/( Debt)

Long Term debts = 15% Mortgage Loan = Rs. 1,60,000

Total Assets to debt Ratio =(RS.7,20,000 )/( Rs.1,60,000)=4.5:1

**Comment:**Long-term debts are 4.5 times the company’s overall assets, indicating that the company is using lower debts in financing assets, implying a broad safety buffer for lenders.

So, the Total Assets to debt Ratio is 4.5:1.

**(4) Calculation of Interest Coverage Ratio:Formula for Interest Coverage Ratio:**Interest Coverage Ratio =(Net Profit before Interest and Tax )/( Fixed Interest Charges)

Net Profit after interest and tax = Rs. 60,000

Net Profit before Payment of Tax = Rs. 60,000 ×(100 )/50= RS. 1,20,000

Net Profit before interest and tax =1,20,000 + Fixed Interest Charges

= 1,20,000 + 24,000 = Rs. 1,44,000

Interest Coverage Ratio = (RS.1,44,000 )/( Rs.24,,000)= 6 Times

**Comment:**The interest coverage ratio is equal to the suitable interest coverage ratio of 6 or 7 times, that is why Interest coverage ratio of the company is satisfactory

So, the Interest Coverage Ratio is 6 times.

**Question 152. **(i) Issue of preference Share for Cash.

(ii) Issue of Debentures for Cash.

(iii) Issue of bonus Shares.

(iv) Redemption of debentures for cash.

(v) Conversion of Debentures into Equity Shares.

(vi) Purchase of a fixed assets for cash.

(vii) Purchase of a fixed assets by taking long term loan.

(viii) sale of fixed assets (Book value Rs. 5,00,000) for Rs. 4,00,000.

(ix) Sale of Fixed assets (Book value Rs. 2,00,000 ) at a profit of Rs. 50,000.

**Solution152**

Tr. No. | Result on Debt Equity Ratio | Reason |

1. | Decrease | Equity Shareholder assets are raised Long-term loans are unchanged |

2. | Increase | Equity remains unchanged long-term debts are raised |

3. | No Change | Long-term loans keep the same, Equity shareholder assets raised. |

4. | Decrease | Equity shareholder’s funds are keep unchanged Long-term debts are reduced. |

5. | Decrease | Shareholder’s funds are raised Long-term debts are decreased by the same amount. |

6. | No Change | Neither the Long -term Debts nor the equity are affected. |

7. | Increase | Equity Shareholders keep unchanged Long-term debts are raised. |

8. | Increase | Equity shareholder funds are reduced by the amount of loss —Long-term debts keep unchanged. |

9. | Decrease | Shareholder’s funds are raised by the amount of profit Long-term debts are keep unchanged. |

**Question 153. **

**Solution153Calculate Inventory Coverage RatioFormula of Inventory Coverage ratio:**

**Question 154. **

**Solution 154:(1) Calculate Inventory Turnover RatioFormula of Inventory Turnover ratio:**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of sales from Operations )/Inventory

Below is the calculation of Gross profit:

Gross profit = 20% on Sales from Operations

= Rs. 8,00,000 × 20/( 100 )

= RS. 1,60,000

Cost of Sales from Operations = Net Sales from Operations – Gross Profit

= Rs. 8,00,000 – Rs. 1,60,000

= Rs. 6,40,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio =(Rs.6,40,000 )/(Rs.1,20,000)=5.33 times

**(b) Calculate Trade Receivables Turnover ratio**Formula of Trade Receivables Turnover ratio :

Trade Receivables Turnover ratio =(Credit Revenue from Operations)/(Trade Receivables)

= (Rs.8,00,000)/( Rs.36,000)=22.22 times

So, the Trade Receivables Turnover ratio 22.22times

**3) Calculation of Working Capital Turnover Ratio**Formula for find working capital Turnover Ratio

Working Capital Turnover Ratio =(Net Revenue from Operations )/( Working Capital)

**Below is the calculation of Working capital**Working Capital = Inventory + Trade Receivables + Cash & Cash Equivalents – Trade Payables – Bank Overdraft

= Rs. 1,20,000 + Rs. 36,000 + Rs. 14,000 – RS. 50,000 – RS. 20,000

= RS. 1,00,000

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = = (Rs.8,00,000)/( Rs.1,00,000 ) = 8 Times

So, the Working Capital Turnover Ratio 8 times

**Question 155.**

**Solution155.**

(1) Calculate Inventory Turnover Ratio

Formula of Inventory Turnover ratio:

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Sales from Operations – Gross Profit

= Rs. 8,00,000 – Rs. 2,00,000

= Rs. 6,00,000

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

=(Rs.40,000+Rs.80,000 )/2

=(1,20,000 )/2

=Rs. 60,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 6,00,000 )/(Rs.60,000)= 10 Times

So, the Inventory Turnover ratio: 10 times

**(2) Calculate Average Age of InventoryFormula of Average Age of Inventory:**Average Age of Inventory =(Days in a year)/(Inventory Turnover Ratio)

= (365 )/( 10 times)=37 days

So, the Inventory Turnover ratio: 37 days.

**(3) Calculate Working Capital Turnover RatioFormula of Working Capital Turnover Ratio:**Working Capital Turnover Ratio =(Net Revenue from Operations )/( Working Capital)

Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

**Below is the calculation of current Assets:**Current Assets = Trade Receivables + Closing Inventory + Cash & Cash Equivalents

= RS. 1,15,000 + Rs. 80,000 + Rs. 1,00,000

= Rs. 2,95,000

**Below is the calculation of Current Liabilities:**Current Liabilities = Trade Payables + Outstanding Expenses

= Rs. 75,000 + Rs. 20,000 = Rs. 95,000

Working Capital = Rs. 2,95,000 – Rs. 95,000

= Rs. 2,00,000

Working Capital Turnover Ratio =(Rs.8,00,000 )/( Rs.2,00,000)=4 times

So, the Working Capital Turnover Ratio: 4 times.

**Question 156. **

**Solution156:Calculation of Inventory Turnover RatioFormula of Inventory Turnover Ratio:**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Sales from Operations – Gross Profit

= Rs. 2,00,000 – 25% of 2,00,000

= Rs. 1,50,000

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

=(Rs.38,500+Rs.41,500 )/2

=(Rs.80,000 )/2

=Rs. 40,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 1,50,000 )/(Rs.40,000)= 3.75 Times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 3.75 times.

**Question 157. :-**

**Solution157Calculation of Inventory Turnover RatioFormula of Inventory Turnover Ratio:**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Gross Profit ratio 25% of Cost

Therefore, goods sold of RS. 100 is sold for Rs. 125

If Sales from operations are Rs. 125, Cost is RS. 100

If Sales from Operations are Rs. 2,00,000 Cost is (100 )/125× Rs. 2,00,000

=Rs. 1,60,000

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

=(Rs.38,500+Rs.41,500 )/2

=(Rs.80,000 )/2 =Rs. 40,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 1,60,000 )/(Rs.40,000)= 4 Times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 4 times.

**Question 158. Opening Inventory Rs. 19,000; Closing Inventory Rs. 21,000; Sales from Operations Rs. 2,00,000; Gross Profit Ratio 25%. Calculate Inventory Turnover Ratio.**

**Solution158Calculation of Inventory Turnover RatioFormula of Inventory Turnover Ratio:**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Cost of Sales from Operations = Sales from Operations – Gross Profit

= Rs. 2,00,000 – 25% of 2,00,000

= Rs. 1,50,000

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

=(Rs.19,000+Rs.21,000 )/2

=(Rs.40,000 )/2 =Rs.20,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio= (Rs. 1,50,000 )/(Rs.20,000)= 7.5 Times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 10 times.

**Question 159.**

**Solution159Calculation of Inventory Turnover RatioFormula of Inventory Turnover Ratio:**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Sales from Operations – Gross Profit

= Rs. 2,00,000 – 331/3% of 6,00,000

= Rs. 6,00,000 – Rs. 2,00,000

= Rs. 4,00,000

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

=(Rs.28,000+Rs.52,000 )/2

=(Rs.80,000 )/2 =Rs. 40,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 4,00,000 )/(Rs.40,000) = 10 Times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 10 times.

**Question 160.**

**Solution160Calculation of Inventory Turnover RatioFormula of Inventory Turnover Ratio:**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

G. P. Ratio is 331/3% on cost.

Hence, Costing of goods Rs. 100 is sold for Rs. 1331/3

If Sales from Operations are Rs. 1331/3,

Cost of Sales from operations is RS. 100

If Sales from Operations are Rs. 6,00,000,

Cost of Revenue from Operations = (100 )/(133 1/3) × Rs. 6,00,000

= 100×3/400 × Rs. 6,00,000

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

=(Rs.28,000+Rs.52,000 )/2

=(Rs.80,000 )/2

=Rs. 40,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 4,50,000 )/(Rs.40,000)= 11.25 Times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 8 times.

**Question 161. Opening Inventory Rs. 29,000; Purchases Rs. 2,42,000; Sales from Operations Rs. 3,20,000; Gross profit Ratio is 255 on Sales from Operations. Calculate Inventory Turnover ratio.**

**Solution161****Calculation of Inventory Turnover RatioFormula of Inventory Turnover Ratio:**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Sales from Operations – Gross Profit

= Rs. 3,20,000 – 25% of 3,20,000

= Rs. 3,20,000 – Rs. 80,000

= Rs. 2,40,000

**Calculation of Closing Inventory:**Cost of Sales from operations = Opening Inventory + Purchases – Closing Inventory

Hence, Closing Inventory = Opening Inventory + Purchases – Cost Of Sales from Operations

= RS. 29,000 + Rs. 2,42,000 – Rs. 2,40,000

=Rs. 31,000

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

=(Rs.29,000+Rs.31,000 )/2 =(Rs.60,000 )/2

=Rs. 30,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 2,40,000 )/(Rs.30,000)= 8 Times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 8 times.

**Question 162. **

**Solution162Calculate the Inventory turnover Ratio:Formula of Inventory Turnover Ratio is:**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Sales from Operations – Gross Profit

Net Sales from Operations

Net Sales from Operations

Net Sales from Operations = Sales from Operations – Sales from Operations Return

= Rs. 1,90,000 – Rs. 10,000

= Rs. 1,80,000

Gross Profit = 20% on Cost

Therefore, goods costing Rs. 100 is sold for Rs. 120

Sales from Operations is Rs. 120, Gross Profit is Rs. 20

Sales from operations is Rs. 1,80,000, Gross Profit is Rs. ( 20 )/120×Rs. 1,80,000

= RS. 30,000

Cost of Sales from operations =Rs. 1,80,000- Rs. 30,000

=Rs. 1,50,000

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

= (Rs.28,000+Rs.22,000 )/2

=(Rs.50,000 )/2

=Rs. 25,000

Cost of Sales from operations = Opening Inventory + Purchases – Carriage- Closing Inventory

Opening Inventory = Cost of reserve from Operations – Purchases – Carriage + closing Inventory

Opening Inventory = Rs. 1,50,000 – Rs. 1,40,000 – 4,000 + 22,000

Opening Inventory =Rs. 28,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 1,50,000 )/(Rs.25,000)= 6 Times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 6 times.

**Question 163. From the following data, calculate Inventory turnover ratio: –**Total Sales from Operations (Total sales) Rs. 4,00,000; Sales from Operations Return (Sales Returns) Rs. 34,000; Gross Profit Rs. 80,000; Closing Inventory Rs. 52,000; Excess of closing Inventory over Opening Inventory Rs. 16,000.

**Solution 163Calculate Inventory Turnover RatioFormula of Inventory Turnover Ratio is :**

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Sales from Operations – Gross Profit

= Rs. 4,00,000 – Rs. 34,000- Rs. 80,000

= Rs. 2,86,000

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

= (Rs.52,000+Rs.36,000 )/2

= (Rs.88,000 )/2

= Rs. 44,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs. 2,86,000 )/(Rs.44,000)= 6.5 Times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is Rs. 6.5 times

**Question 164.**

You are informed that closing inventory is Rs. 8,000 more than the opening inventory.

**Solution164Calculate Closing Inventory and Opening Inventory**Given Inventory turnover ratio = 5

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

5 = (Revenue from Operations-gross profit )/(Average Inventory)

5 = ((Rs.2,00,000-25% of Rs.2,00,000))/(Average Inventory)

5 = ((Rs.2,00,000-Rs.50,000) )/(Average Inventory)

Or Average Inventory = (Rs. 1,50,000 )/5 = Rs. 30,000

Opening Inventory = Rs. 30,000- (1 )/2 of Rs. 8,000

= Rs. 30,000 – Rs. 4,000 = RS. 26,000

So, the opening inventory is Rs. 26,000

**Question 165. **

**Solution 165:Calculate Closing Inventory and Opening Inventory**Given Inventory turnover ratio = 6

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

6 =(Revenue from Operations-gross profit )/(Average Inventory)

6 = ((Rs.1,80,000-20% of Rs.1,80,000))/(Average Inventory)

6 = ((Rs.1,80,000-Rs.36,000) )/(Average Inventory)

Or Average Inventory =(Rs. 1,44,000 )/6 = Rs. 24,000

Opening Inventory =Rs. 24,000- (1 )/2 of Rs. 15,000

= Rs. 24,000 – Rs. 7,500 = RS. 16,500

Closing Inventory = Rs. 24,000 + (1 )/2 of Rs. 15,000

= RS. 24,000 + Rs. 7.500

= RS. 31,500

So, the opening inventory is Rs. 16,500

And the Closing Inventory is RS. 31,500

**Question 166. **

**Solution166.Calculate Inventory at the end of the yearFormula for inventory turnover ratio:**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

**Given:**Inventory in starting : 7 times

Cost od revenue from operations: Rs. 6,30,000

7 =(Rs.6,30,000)/(Average Inventory)

Average Inventory =(Rs. 6,30,000 )/7 = Rs. 90,000

Total of Opening and Closing Inventory = Rs. 90,000 × 2 =Rs. 1,80,000

Ratio of Opening Inventory to Close Inventories =1:2

So, Closing Inventory = Rs. 1,80,000 × ( 2 )/3= Rs. 1,20,000

So the Closing Inventory is : RS. 1,20,000

**Question 167. Rs. 1,50,000 is the cost of Sales from operations of a firm for the year 2014. If inventory turnover ratio is 6 times, calculate inventory at the end of the year. Inventory at the end is 1.5 times than that in the beginning.**

**Solution167Calculate Inventory at the end of the yearFormula for inventory turnover ratio:**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

**Given:**Inventory in starting : 6 times

Cost od revenue from operations: Rs. 1,50,000

6 =(Rs.1,50,000)/(Average Inventory)

Average Inventory =(Rs. 1,50,000 )/6 = Rs. 25,000

Total of Opening and Closing Inventory = Rs. 25,000 × 2= Rs. 50,000

Ratio of Opening Inventory to Close Inventories =1:1.5

So, Closing Inventory = Rs. 50,000 × ( 1.5 )/2.5= Rs. 30,000

So the Closing Inventory is : RS. 30,000

**Question 168. Following figures have been extracted from Shivalik Mills Ltd.: –**

Inventory in the beginning of the year | Rs. 60,000 |

Inventory at the end of the year | Rs. 1,00,000 |

Inventory turnover ratio | 8 times |

Sales from Operations | 25% above cost |

Compute the amount of gross profit and Sales from operations.

**Solution168Calculate the gross profit and Sales from operations:**Given : Inventory Turnover Ratio: 8 times

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory )/2

=(Rs.60,000+Rs.1,00,000 )/2 =(Rs.1,60,000 )/2

=Rs. 80,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

8 =(Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Rs.80,000)

Cost of Revenue from Operations = Rs. 80,000 × 8

= Rs. 6,40,000

Gross Profit = Cost of Sales from Operations 25% :

6,40,000 × 25% = Rs. 1,60,000

Sales from Operations = Cost of Sales from Operations + Gross Profit

= Rs. 6,40,000 + Rs. 1,60,000

= Rs. 8,00,000

So, the Gross Profit is Rs. 1,60,000

And the Sales from Operations is Rs. 8,00,000

**Question 169. **

**Solution169Calculate the current Assets of the company:**Current Assets = Liquid Assets + Closing inventory

**By using Quick Ratio, we find liquid assets :**

Given :

Quick ratio = 0.75

Given :

Quick ratio = (Liquid assets )/(Current Liabilities)

0.75 = (Liquid assets )/(Rs.40,000)

Or Liquid Assets = Rs. 40,000 × 0.75 = RS. 30,000

By using Inventory Turnover Ratio, we can find closing Inventory:

Given : Inventory Turnover Ratio = 4

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

4 =(Cost of Revenue from Operations-gross profit )/(Average Inventory)

Average Inventory = (Rs.3,00,000-20% of Rs.3,00,000 )/4

Average Inventory = (Rs.2,40,000 )/4= RS. 60,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 60,000 + ( 1 )/2= Rs. 20,000

= Rs. 60,000 + Rs. 10,000

= RS. 70,000

Current Assets = Liquid Assets + Inventory

= RS. 30,000 + Rs. 70,000

= Rs. 1,00,000

So, the Current Assets is RS. 1,00,000.

**Question 170. **

**Solution170(1) calculate Inventory Turnover Ratio**Formula for Find Inventory Turnover Ratio is :

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Average Inventory)

**Given :**

Inventory Turnover: 5 times

Cost Of revenue from Operations: Rs. 1,50,000

5 =(Rs.1,50,000 )/(Average Inventory)

Average Inventory = (Rs.1,50,000 )/5= Rs. 30,000

Opening Inventory = Rs. 30,000 – ( 1 )/2 of Rs. 4,000= Rs. 28,000

Closing Inventory = Rs. 30,000 + ( 1 )/2 of Rs.4,000= Rs. 32,000

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is Rs. 32,000.

**Calculate Liquid Ratio**Formula for Find Liquid Ratio is :

Liquid Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Liquid Assets = Current Assets – Closing Inventory

=Rs. 1,00,000 – Rs. 32,000

=Rs. 68,000

Liquid Ratio =(Rs.68,000 )/(Rs.70,000)= .97:1

So, the Liquid Ratio is . 97:1.

**Question 171. From the following information, calculate Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio : –**

Rs. | |

Opening Trade Receivables | 37,000 |

Closing Trade Receivables | 43,000 |

Sales from Operations (sales) | 6,00,000 |

Cash Sales from Operations (cash Sales) | 80,000 |

**Solution171****Calculate Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio**Formula for Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio is :

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables)

Credit Sales from Operations = Sales from Operations – cash Sales from Operations

= Rs. 6,00,000 – Rs. 80,000

= RS. 5,20,000

Average Trade Receivables = (Opening Trade Receivables+Closing Trade Receivables )/2

=(Rs.37,000+Rs.43,000 )/2

=(Rs.80,000 )/2= Rs. 40,000

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio =(Rs.5,20,000 )/(rs.40,000)= 13 times

So the Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio is 13 times.

**Question 172. From the following information, calculate trade receivables turnover ratio and average collection period: –**

Rs. | |

Credit Sales | 14,80,000 |

Sales Return | 20,000 |

Debtors | 2,50,000 |

Bills receivables | 42,000 |

Provision for doubtful debts | 1,500 |

**Solution172Calculate trade receivables turnover ratio**Formula for trade receivables turnover ratio:

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Net Credit Sales )/( Trade Receivables)

Net Credit Sales = Credit Sales – Sales Return

= Rs. 14,80,000 – Rs. 20,000

= RS. 14,60,000

Trade Receivables = Debtors + B/R = RS. 2,92,000

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio =(Rs.14,60,000 )/(Rs.2,92,000) = 5 times

Formula For Average Collection Period =(Days in a year)/(trade Receivables Turnover Artio)

=(365 days )/(5 times)= 73 days

So, the calculations of trade receivables turnover ratio is 5 time

And the Average collection period is 73 days

**Question 173. Calculate Trade Receivables turnover ratio from the following: –**Credit Sales from operations for the year RS. 60,000, Debtors Rs. 5,000, Bill Receivables RS. 5,000

**Solution173The Calculation of Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio:**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio =(Rs.1460,000 )/(Rs.2,92,000) = 5 times

=(Rs.60,000)/(Rs.5,000+Rs.5,000)

=(Rs.60,000 )/(Rs.10,000)= 6 times

So, the Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio: 6 times

**Question 174. Closing Trade Receivables RS. 4,00,000; Cash Sales from Operations being 25% of credit Sales from Operations. Excess of Closing Trade Receivables over Opening Trade Receivables Rs. 2,00,000. Total Sales from Operations Rs. 15,00,000. Calculate Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio.**

**Solution174The Calculation of Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio:**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables)

Total Sales from Operations = Rs. 15,00,000

Ratio of Cash to credit Sales from Operations 1:4

Credit Sales from Operation activities = Rs. 15,00,000 × ( 4 )/5= Rs. 12,00,000

Given: Closing Trade Receivables =Rs. 4,00,000

Opening Trade Receivables =Rs. 4,00,000 – Rs. 2,00,000

= Rs. 2,00,000

Average Trade Receivables = (Opening Trade Receivables+Closing Trade Receivables )/2

=(Rs.2,00,000+Rs.4,00,000 )/2

=(Rs.6,00,000 )/2= Rs. 3,00,000

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio =(Rs.12,00,000 )/(rs.3,00,000)= 4 times

So, the trade Receivables Turnover Ratio is 4 times.

**Question 175. Opening Trade Receivables Rs. 3,60,000; Cash Sales from Operations being 20% of Credit Sales from Operations. Excess of Closing Trade Receivables over Opening Trade Receivables Rs. 60,000. Cost of Sales from Operations Rs. 18,00,000; Gross Profit Rs. 5,40,000. Calculate Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio.**

**Solution175To Calculate Trade Receivables turnover Ratio;**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations )/( Trade Receivables)

Sales from Operation activities = Cost of Sales from Operations + Gross Profit

= Rs. 18,00,000 + Rs. 5,40,000

= Rs. 23,40,000

Share of Cash to credit Sales from Operations 1:5

Credit Sales from Operation activities = Rs. 23,40,000 × ( 5 )/6= Rs. 19,50,000

Closing Trade Receivables =Opening Trade Receivables +Rs. 60,000

=Rs. 3,60,000 – Rs. 60,000

= Rs. 4,20,000

Average Trade Receivables = (Opening Trade Receivables+Closing Trade Receivables )/2

=(Rs.3,60,000+Rs.4,20,000 )/2

=(Rs.7,80,000 )/2= Rs. 3,90,000

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio =(Rs.19,50,000 )/(rs.3,90,000)= 5 times

So, the Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio is 5 times.

**Question 176. Opening Trade Receivables Rs. 10,000; Total Sales from Operations (Total Sales) Rs. 4,00,000; Cash Sales from Operations being 2/5th of total Sales from operations; Sales from Operations Return (Sales Return) Rs. 60,000 (1/3rd out of cash Sales from Operations); Closing Trade Receivables were four times than that in the beginning. Calculate Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio and Average Collection period.**

**Solution176To Calculate Trade Receivables Ratio and Average Collection period.**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Net Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables)

Net Credit Sales from Operations = Credit Sales from Operations + Credit Sales from Operations Returns

Since Cash Sales from Operations is 2/5th pf total Sales from Operations, 1:5

Credit Sales from Operations =(3 )/5 of Total Revenue from Operations

= (3 )/5 of Rs.4,00,000

= Rs. 2,40,000

Since Cash Sales from Operations return (1 )/3 rd of total Revenue from Operations Return,

Credit Sales from Operations = (2 )/3 of Total Revenue from Operation Return

=(2 )/3 Of Rs.60,000 = Rs. 40,0000

Net Credit Sales from Operations = Rs. 2,40,000 – Rs. 40,000 = Rs. 2,00,000

Closing Trade Receivables =4 times of opening Trade Receivables

= 4 times of Rs. 10,000 = Rs. 40,000

Average Trade Receivables = (Opening Trade Receivables+Closing Trade Receivables )/2

=(Rs.10,000+Rs.40,000 )/2

=(Rs.50,000 )/2= Rs. 250,000

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio =(Rs.2,00,000 )/(Rs.25,000) = 8 times

Average Collection Period =(Days in a year)/(trade Receivables Turnover Artio)

=(365 days )/(8 times)= 46 days

So, the Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio: 8 times

The Average Collection Period: 46 days.

**Question 177. Credit Sales from Operations RS. 5,60,000; Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio 7 times; Closing Trade Receivables were three times than that in the beginning. Calculate opening and closing trade receivables.**

**Solution177For Calculate Opening and Closing trade receivables**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables)

**Given:**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio: 7 times

Credit revenue from operations: Rs. 5,60,000

7 time = (Rs.5,60,000 )/(Average Trade Receivables)

Average Trade Receivables =(Rs.5,60,000 )/2= Rs. 80,000

Opening Trade Receivables + closing Trade Receivables =Rs. 80,000 × 2

= 1,60,000

Ratio of Opening Trade Receivables to Closing Receivables = 1:3

Opening Trade Receivables = Rs. 1,60,000 × ( 1 )/4

= Rs. 40,000

Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 1,60,000 × ( 1 )/4

= Rs. 1,20,000

So, the Opening Trade Receivables: Rs. 40,000

The Closing Trade Receivables: Rs. 1,20,000.

**Question 178. **

**Solution178For Calculate Opening and Closing trade receivables**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables)

**Given:**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio: 8 times

Credit revenue from operations: Rs. 6,00,000

8 times = (Rs.6,00,000 )/(Average Trade Receivables)

Average Trade Receivables =(Rs.6,00,000 )/8= Rs. 75,000

Opening Trade Receivables + closing Trade Receivables =Rs. 75,000 × 2

= 1,50,000

Ratio of Opening Trade Receivables to Closing Receivables = 1:1.5

Opening Trade Receivables = Rs. 1,50,000 × ( 1 )/2.5

= Rs. 60,000

Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 1,50,000 × ( 1 )/2.5

= Rs. 90,000

So, the Opening Trade Receivables: Rs. 60,000

The Closing Trade Receivables: Rs. 90,000.

**Question 179. Calculate the amount of opening Trade Receivables and Closing Trade Receivables from the following: –**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio 10 times

Cost of Sales from Operations Rs. 7,00,000

G.P. Ratio 30% of Sales from Operations

You are informed that closing trade receivables were three times than that in the beginning. Cash Sales from Operations being 25% of Credit Sales from Operations.

**Solution179. ****Calculation of Opening Trade Receivables and Closing Trade Receivables**G. P. Ratio 30% of Sales from Operations

It means if the Sales from operations is = Rs. 100

Then the Gross Profit is = Rs. 30

& the Cost of Sales from Operations is = Rs. 70

If Cost of Sales from Operations is Rs. 70, Sales from Operations is Rs. 100

If cost of Sales from Operations is Rs. 7,00,000

Sales from Operations is ( 100 )/70 ×Rs 7,00,000 = Rs. 10,00,000

Due to the fact that cash sales from operations account for 25% of credit sales from operations, the ratio of cash sales from operations to credit sales from operations is 25%.

= 25:100

Credit Sales from Operations =Rs. 10,00,000 × ( 100 )/125 = Rs. 8,00,000

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average Trade Receivables)

**Given:**Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio: 10 Times

Credit Revenue from Operations: Rs. 8,00,000

10 Time = (Rs.8,00,000 )/(Average Trade Receivables)

Average Trade Receivables =(Rs.8,00,000 )/10= Rs. 80,000

Opening Trade Receivables + closing Trade Receivables =Rs. 80,000 × 2

= 1,60,000

Ratio of Opening Trade Receivables to Closing Receivables = 1:3

Opening Trade Receivables = Rs. 1,60,000 × ( 1 )/4

= Rs. 40,000

Closing Trade Receivables = Rs. 1,60,000 × ( 3 )/4

= Rs. 1,20,000

So, the opening Trade Receivables is RS. 40,000 and Closing Trade Receivables Rs. 1,20,000

**Question 180. From the following particulars determine the Closing Debtors: –**

Rs. | |

Total Sales from Operations | 24,00,000 |

Cash Sales from Operations | 4,60,000 |

Sales from Operations Returns (out of credit Sales from Operations) | 20,000 |

Trade Sales from Operations | 6 times |

Opening debtors | 2,50,000 |

Opening B/R | 14,000 |

Closing B/R | 12,000 |

**Solution180:Calculation of Closing Debtors**It is given that trade Sales from Operations: 6 time

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio = (Credit Revenue from Operations )/(Average debtort & B/R)

**Trade Sales from Operations:-**(Total Revenue from Operations-Cash Revenue from Operations-Credit Revenue from Operations return )/(Average debtort & B/R)

6 Times =(Rs.24,00,000-Rs.4,60,000-Rs.20,000)/(Average debtort & B/R)

Average Trade Receivables =(Rs.19,20,000 )/6= Rs. 3,20,000

Total of opening Debtors & B/R and Closing Debtors & B/R = Rs. 3,20,000 × 2 = Rs. 6,40,000

Opening Debtors + Opening B/R + Closing Debtors + Closing B/R

Rs. 2,50,000 + Rs. 14,000 + Closing Debtors + Rs. 12,000 = R. 6,40,000

Closing debtors

Closing debtors =Rs. 6,40,000 – Rs. 2,50,000 – Rs. 14,000 – Rs. 12,000

= Rs. 3,64,000

So, the Closing Debtors is Rs. 3,64,000.

**Question 181. From the following Balance Sheet and other information, calculate any three of the following ratio:-**i. Debt – Equity Ratio,

ii. Proprietary Ratio,

iii. Total Assets to Debt Ratio,

iv. Working Capital Turnover Ratio,

v. Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio.

**Solution181(I)Calculation of the Debt Equity Ratio:**Formula of the Debt Equity Ratio

Debt Equity Ratio = (Debt )/( Equity ) or (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

Long Term Debt = Loan @ 15%

= Rs. 1,20,000

Shareholder’s Funds = Share Capital + General Reserve + P & L Balance

= Rs. 1,00,000 + Rs. 40,000 + Rs. 50,000

= Rs. 1,90,000

Debt equity Ratio =(Rs.1,20,000 )/( Rs.1,90,000 ) = 0.63:1.

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is 0.63:1.

**(II)Calculation of the Proprietary Ratio:**Formula of the Proprietary Ratio

Proprietary Ratio = (Shareholder^’ s Funds )/( Total Assets)

Total Assets = Fixed Assets + Inventory + Trade Receivables + Cash & Cash Equivalents

= Rs. 1,80,000 + Rs. 40,000 + Rs. 90,000 + Rs. 50,000

= Rs. 3,60,000

Proprietary Ratio = (Rs.1,90,000 )/( Rs.3,60,000 ) = .5278 or 52.78%

So, the Proprietary ratio is 52.78%.

**(III)Calculation of the Total Assets to Debt Ratio:**Formula of the Total Assets to Debt Ratio

Total Assets to Debt Ratio = (Total Assets )/( Long term Debts)

=(Rs.3,60,000)/( Rs.1,20,000)=3:1

So, the Total Assets to Debt Ratio is 3:1.

**(IV)Calculation of the Working Capital Turnover Ratio:**Formula of the Working Capital Turnover Ratio

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Revenue from Operatins )/( Working Capital )

Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Current Assets = Inventory + Trade Receivables + Cash & Cash Equivalents

= Rs. 40,000 + Rs. 90,000 + Rs. 50,000

= Rs. 1,80,000

Current Liabilities = Trade Payables = Rs. 50,000

Working Capital = Rs. 1,80,000 – Rs. 50,000

=Rs. = 1,30,000

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Rs.1,80,000)/( Rs.1,30,000) = 1.38 times

So, the working capital turnover ratio is 1.38 times.

**(V)Calculation of the Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio:**Formula of the Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio =(Revenue from operations)/( trade Receivables)

=(Rs.1,80,000)/( Rs.90,000) = 2 times

So, the Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio is 1.38 times.

**Question 182. **

**You are required to calculate: –**Working Capital Ratio (b) Debt equity Ratio and (c) Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio if Credit Sales from Operations are Rs. 7,20,000.

**Solution182**:**(A) Calculation of the Working Capital Ratio:**Formula of the Working Capital Ratio

Working Capital Ratio = (Current Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Assets = Inventory + Trade Receivables + Cash

= Rs. 44,000 + Rs. 1,20,000 + Rs. 36,000

= Rs. 2,00,000

Current Liabilities = Trade Payables + Bank Overdraft

= Rs. 60,000 + Rs. 20,000

= Rs.80,000

Working Capital Ratio =(Rs.2,00,000)/(Rs.80,000) =2.5 : 1

So, the working capital Ratio is 2.5:1.

**(B) Calculation of the Debt Equity Ratio:**Formula of the Debt Equity Ratio

Debt Equity Ratio = (Debt )/( Equity ) or (Long term Debt )/( Shareholder^’ s Funds)

= (Rs.1,00,000 )/( Rs.3,00,000 +Rs.1,00,000 )

=(Rs.1,00,000 )/( Rs.4,00,000 )= .25:1

So, the Debt Equity Ratio is .25:1.

**(C) Calculation of the Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio:**Formula of the Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio

Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio =(Credit Revenue From Operations )/( Trade Receivables )

=(Rs.7,20,000)/( Rs.1,20,000 )=Rs.6 Times

So, the Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio is 6 times.

**Question 183. **

**Solution183To calculate Gross profit Ratio**Formula for calculate the gross profit ratio is:

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Gross Profit = Net Sales from Operations – Cost of Sales from Operations

Net Sales from Operations = Cash Sales from Operations + Credit Sales from Operations – Return Inwards

= Rs. 30,000 + Rs. 3,05,000 – Rs. 20,000 + Rs. 32,000 – Rs. 25,000

= Rs. 3,22,000

Gross Profit = RS. 4,60,000 – Rs. 3,22,000 =Rs. 1,38,000

=(Rs.1,38,000)/(Rs.4,60,000) ×100 = 30%

So, the Gros Profit Ratio is 30%.

**Question 184. **

**Solution184To calculate Gross profit Ratio**Formula for calculate the gross profit ratio is:

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Gross Profit = Net Sales from Operations – Cost of Sales from Operations

Net Sales from Operation Activity = Cash Sales from Operations + Credit Sales from Operations – Sales from operations Return

= Rs. 1,70,000 + Rs. 3,50,000 – Rs. 20,000

= Rs. 5,00,000

Gross Profit = RS. 5,00,000 – Rs. 4,00,000

= Rs. 1,00,000

=(Rs.1,00,000)/(Rs.5,00,000) ×100 = 20%

So, the Gross Profit is 20%

**Question 185. **

**Solution185**If Total Sales from Operations is Rs. 100, cash Sales from Operations will be RS. 25 and Credit Sales from Operations RS. 75

Hence, If Credit Sales from Operations is Rs. 75

Total Sales from operation activities will be RS. 100

If Credit Sales from Operations is RS. 6,00,000

Total Sales from Operations will be = 1,00/75 ×RS.6,00,000

= Rs. 8,00,000

Cost of Sales from Operation activities = Purchases – Excess of Closing Inventory over Opening Inventory

= RS. 6,90,000 – Rs. 50,000

= Rs. 6,40,000

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Gross Profit = Total Sales from Operations – Cost of Sales from Operations

= Rs. 8,00,000 – RS. 6,40,000

=RS. 1,60,000

=(Rs.1,60,000)/(Rs.8,00,000) ×100 = 20%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio is 20%.

**Question 186. **

**Solution186**Total Sales from Operations is Rs. 100

Cash Sales from Operations will be RS. 331/3

Credit Sales from Operations = (100 – 331/3 )

Credit Sales from Operations = RS. 662/3

Total Sales from operations will be RS. 100

If Credit Sales from Operations is RS. 2,00,000

Total Sales from Operations will be = 1,00/(66 2/3) ×RS.2,00,000

= 100 ×3/200×2,00,000= Rs. 3,00,000

Cost of Sales from Operations = Purchases + Carriage Inwards – excess of Closing Inventory over Opening Inventory

= RS. 2,25,000 + Rs. 25,000 – Rs. 10,000

= Rs. 2,40,000

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Gross Profit = Total Sales from Operations – Cost of Sales from Operations

= Rs. 3,00,000 – RS. 2,40,000

=RS. 60,000

=(Rs.60,000)/(Rs.3,00,000) ×100 = 20%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio is 20%.

**Question 187. Calculate Gross Profit ratio from the following data :**Cash Sales from Operations are 1/3 rd of Total Sales from Operations, Cash Sales from Operations were Rs. 6,00,000; Credit Purchase are 25% of total purchases, credit Purchases were Rs. 3,00,000. Opening Inventory Rs. 1,00,000; Closing Inventory was Rs. 50,000 more than opening Inventory. Carriage RS. 15,000. Wages Rs. 35,000.

**Solution187:**If Cash Sales from Operations is Rs. 1

Total Sales from operations will be RS. 3

If Credit Sales from Operations is RS. 6,00,000

Total Sales from Operations will be = 3/1 ×RS.6,00,000 = Rs. 18,00,000

If Credit purchase is Rs. 25

Total Purchase will be RS. 100

If Credit Purchases is RS. 3,00,000

Total Purchase will be = 100/25×3,00,000 = Rs. 12,00,000

Cost of Sales from Operations = Purchases + Carriage Inwards + wages – excess of Closing Inventory over Opening Inventory

= RS. 12,00,000 + Rs. 15,000 + Rs. 35,000– Rs. 50,000

= Rs. 12,00,000

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Gross Profit = Sales from Operations – Cost of Sales from Operation Activities

= Rs. 18,00,000 – RS. 12,00,000

=RS. 6,00,000

=(Rs.6,00,000)/(Rs.18,00,000) ×100 = 33.33%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio is 33.33%.

**Question 188. A company earns a gross profit of 20% on cost. Its credit Sales from operations are twice its cash Sales from operations. If the credit Sales from operations are Rs. 4,00,000. Calculate the gross profit ratio of the company.**

**Solution188.**

Hence, total Sales from Operations = Rs. 4,00,000

Credit Sales from Operation activity Rs. 2,00,000

Cash Sales from Operations activity Rs. 6,00,000

Gross Profit is 20% of cost of Sales from Operations

Hence, costing of goods Rs. 100 must have been sold for Rs. 120

Hence, If the Sales from Operation activity are Rs. 12, G.P. will be Rs. 20

If Sales from Operation activity are Rs. 6,00,000, G.P. = 20/120×6,00,000

= Rs. 1,00,000

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

=(Rs.1,00,000)/(Rs.6,00,000) ×100 = 16.67%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio is 16.67%.

**Question 189. From the following information’s calculate:**Current Ratio,

Quick Ratio,

Operating Ratio, and

Gross Profit Ratio

Rs. | Rs. | ||

Current Assets | 70,000 | Operating Expenses | 40,000 |

Current Liabilities | 35,000 | Sales from Operations | 1,20,000 |

Inventory | 30,000 | Cost of Sales from Operations | 60,000 |

**Solution189(A) Calculation of the Current Ratio:**Formula of the Current Ratio

Current Ratio =(Current assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Assets = (Rs.70,000 )/(Rs.35,000) = 2:1

So, the Current Assets is 2:1.

**(B) Calculation of the Gross Profit Ratio:**Formula of the Gross Profit Ratio

Quick ratio = (Liquid assets )/(Current Liabilities)

=(Current assets-Inventory )/(Current Liabilities)

= (Rs.70,000-Rs.30,000 )/(Rs.35,000)

= (Rs.40,000 )/(Rs.35,000) =1.14 : 1

So, the Quick Ratio is 1.14:1

**(C) Calculation of the Opening Ratio:**Formula of the Opening Ratio

Opening Ratio =(Cost of Revenue from operations+Operating Expenses )/(Net Revenue from Operations )×100

=(Rs.60,000 + Rs.40,000 )/(Rs.1,20,000)×100

=(Rs.1,00,000 )/(Rs.1,20,000)×100 = 83.33%

So, the Opening Ratio is 83.33%.

**(d) Calculation of the Gross Profit Ratio:**Formula of the Gross Profit Ratio

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

= (Revenue from Operations – Cost of Revenue from Operations )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

= (Rs.1,20,000 – Rs.60,000 )/(Rs.1,20,000)×100

=RS. 60,000

=(Rs.60,000)/(Rs.1,20,000) ×100 = 50%

So, the Gross profit ratio is 50%.

**Question 190. Calculate:- (i) Gross Profit ratio; (ii) Operating Ratio; (iii) operating Profit Ratio; and (iv) Net Profit from the following: –**

Rs. | |

Sales from operations | 2,00,000 |

Cost of Sales from Operations | 1,20,000 |

Administration Expenses | 20,000 |

Selling Expenses | 15,000 |

Loss by Fire | 10,000 |

Income from Investment | 5,000 |

**Solution190:(4) Calculation of the Gross Profit Ratio:**Formula of the Gross Profit Ratio

(i)Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Gross Profit = Sales from Operations – Cost of Sales from Operations

=Rs. 2,00,000 – Rs. 1,20,000

= RS. 80,000

=(Rs.80,000)/(Rs.2,00,000) ×100 = 40%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio is 40%.

**(2) Calculation of the Operating Ratio:**Formula of the Operating Ratio

Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from operations+Operations expenses)/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Operations Expenses = Administration Expenses + selling Expenses

= Rs. 20,000 + Rs. 15,000

= RS. 35,000

Operating Ratio = (Rs.1,20,000+Rs.35,000)/(Rs.2,00,000)×100

= (Rs.1,55,000)/(Rs.2,00,000)×100 = 77.5%

So, the Operating Ratio is 77.5%.

**(3) Calculation of the Operating Profit Ratio:**Formula of the Operating Profit Ratio

Operating Profit ratio =(Operating Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Operating Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Exp. (i.e., Administration Exp. & Selling Exp.)

=Rs. 80,000 – Rs. 20,000- Rs. 15,000

= Rs. 45,000

Operating Profit ratio = (Rs.45,000)/(Rs.2,00,000)×100= 22.5%

So, the Operating Profit ratio is 22.5%.

**(4) Calculation of the Net Profit Ratio:**Formula of the Net Profit Ratio

Net Profit ratio = (Net Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Net profit = Gross Profit – Administration exp. – Selling Exp. – Loss by Fire + Income from Investments

= Rs. 80,000 = Rs. 20,000 – Rs. 15,000 – Rs. 10,000 + Rs. 5,000

= RS. 40,000

Net Profit Ratio =(Rs.40,000)/(Rs.2,00,000)×100= 20%

So, the Net Profit Ratio is 20 %

**Question 191. Mr. Arun Birla owns a business and gives the following figures for two successive years:-**

Rs. 1^{st} Year | Rs. 2^{nd} Year | |

Sales from Operations | 60,000 | 40,000 |

Gross Profit | 15,000 | 24,000 |

Mr. Arun Birla speaks very high of his Manager who has increased the profit from RS. 15,000 to Rs. 24,000 and describes him very ‘Efficient’. Do you agree with him? If not, why?

**Solution191**Calculation of Gross Profit Ratio for 1st year

Gross Profit Ratio of 1st Year =(Rs.15,000)/(Rs.60,000)×100= 25%

Calculation of Gross Profit Ratio for 2nd year

Gross Profit Ratio of 2nd Year

=(Rs.24,000)/(Rs.1,20,000)×100= 20%

We do not agree with Mr. Arun Birla. The boss is inefficient. Despite the fact that his revenues from operations have doubled this year over last, his gross profit ratio has fallen from 25% to 20%. This may be attributed to disorganisation, lower sale rates, or higher buying prices.

**Question 192. From the following information, calculate :- (I) Gross Profit Ratio, and (ii) Inventory Turnover ratio:-**

Rs. | |

Sales from operations | 2,00,000 |

purchases | 1,69,000 |

Opening Inventory | 35,500 |

Closing Inventory | 44,500 |

**Solution192(1) Calculation of the gross Profit Ratio:**Formula of the gross Profit Ratio

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Cost of Sales from Operations =Purchases + Opening Inventory – Closing Inventory

=Rs. 1,69,000 + Rs. 35,500 – RS. 44,500

= RS. 1,60,000

Gross Profit = Sales from Operations – Cost of Sales from Operations

= RS. 2,00,000 – RS. 1,60,000

= RS. 40,000

Gross Profit Ratio =(Rs.40,000)/(Rs.2,00,000) ×100 = 20%

So, The Gross Profit Ratio is 20%.

**(1) Calculation of the Inventory Turnover Ratio:**Formula of the Inventory Turnover Ratio

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from operations)/(Average Inventory )

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory)/2

= (Rs.35,500 +Rs.44,500)/2

=(Rs.80,000)/2 = RS. 40,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs.1,60,000)/(Rs.40,000)=4 times

So, The Inventory turnover Ratio is 4 times.

**Question 193. From the following information, calculate :- Inventory Turnover ratio and Gross Profit Ratio :-**

Rs. | |

Opening Inventory | 18,000 |

Closing Inventory | 22,000 |

Purchases | 46,000 |

Wages | 14,000 |

Sales from Operations | 80,000 |

Carriage Inwards | 4,000 |

**Solution193(1) Calculation of the Inventory Turnover Ratio:**Formula of the Inventory Turnover Ratio

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from operations)/(Average Inventory )

Cost of Sales from operations = Opening Inventory + Purchases + Wages + Carriage Inwards – closing Inventory

= RS. 18,000 + Rs. 46,000 + RS. 14,000 + RS. 4,000 – RS. 22,00

= RS. 60,000

Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory)/2

= (Rs.18,000 +Rs.22,000)/2

=(Rs.40,000)/2 = RS. 20,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs.60,000)/(Rs.20,000)=3 times

So, the inventory Turnover Ratio is 3 times.

**(2) Calculation of the gross Profit Ratio:**Formula of the Gross Profit Ratio

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Gross Profit = Sales from Operations – Cost of Sales from Operations

= RS.80,000 – RS.60,000

= RS. 20,000

Gross Profit Ratio =(Rs.20,000)/(Rs.50,000) ×100 = 20%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio = 20%

**Question 194. Average Inventory Rs. 80,000; Inventory Turnover Ratio 6 Times; Sales from Operations 25% above cost. Calculate Gross Profit Ratio.**

**Solution194:**Calculation of the gross Profit Ratio:

**Given:**

Inventory turnover Ratio is 6 Times

Average inventory of RS. 80,000

Formula of the Gross profit Ratio:

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from operations)/(Average Inventory )

6 Times =(Cost of Revenue from operations)/(Rs.80,000 )

Cost of Sales from Operations = Rs. 80,000 × 6 =RS. 4,80,000

If Cost of Sales from Operations is Rs. 100, Gross Profit = RS. 25

If Cost of Sales from Operations is Rs. 4,80,000 Gross Profit = RS. 4,80,000 ×25/(100 )

=RS. 1,20,000

Sales From Operations

= Cost of Sales from Operations + Gross Profit

= RS. 4,80,000 + Rs. 1,20,000 =RS. 6,00,000

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

=(Rs.1,20,000)/(Rs.6,00,000) ×100 = 20%

So, the answer is 20 %

**Question 195. A trader carries an average inventory of RS. 40,000. His inventory turnover Ratio is 8 Times. If he sells goods at a profit of 20% on Sales from Operations, find out his profit.**

**Solution195:Calculation of the Inventory Turnover Ratio:**Formula of the Inventory Turnover Ratio:

**Given :**

Inventory turnover Ratio is 8 Times

Average inventory of RS. 40,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of sales from operations)/(Average Inventory )

8 Times =(Cost of sales from operations)/(Rs.40,000 )

Cost of Sales from Operations =

Goods are sold at a profit of 20% on Sales from Operations Rs. 40,000 × 8 = RS. 3,20,000

If Sales from Operations is Rs. 100, Gross Profit will be RS. 20 and cost of Sales from operations RS, 80.

If Cost of Sales from Operations is Activities Rs. 3,20,000 Gross Profit = RS. 3,20,000 ×20/(80 )

=RS. 80,000

So, the Profit is Rs. 80,000.

**Question 196. From the following data calculate: –**i. Gross Profit Ratio; ii. Operating Ratio; iii. Net Profit Ratio; iv. Inventory turnover ratio; and v. Current Ratio.

Rs. | Rs. | ||

Sales from Operations | 25,20,000 | Fixed Assets | 14,40,000 |

Cost of Sales from Operations | 19,20,000 | Net worth | 15,00,000 |

Operating Expenses | 2,40,000 | Debt (Long Term) | 9,00,000 |

Average Inventory | 8,00,000 | Current Liabilities | 6,00,000 |

Other Current Assets | 7,60,000 |

**Solution196:(1) Calculation of the Gross Profit Ratio:**Formula of the Gross Profit Ratio:

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Gross Profit = Sales from Operations – Cost of Sales from Operations

= RS.25,20,000 – RS.19,20,000

= RS. 6,00,000

Gross Profit Ratio =(Rs.6,00,000)/(Rs.25,20,000) ×100 = 23.81%

So, the Gross Profit Ratio is 23.81%

**(2) Calculation of the Operating Ratio:**Formula of the Operating Ratio:

Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from operations+Operations expenses)/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Operating Ratio = (Rs.19,20,000+Rs.2,40,000)/(Rs.25,20,000)×100

= (Rs.21,60,000)/(Rs.25,20,000)×100 = 85.71%

So, the Operating Ratio is 85.1%.

**(3) Calculation of the Net Profit Ratio:Formula of the Net Profit Ratio:**(Net Profit Ratio = (Net Profit)/(Revenue from Operations ) ×100

Net Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Exp.

= Rs. 6,00,000 – Rs. 2,40,000

= Rs. 3,60,000

Net Profit Ratio = 3,60,000/(Rs. 25,20,000) ×100 = 14.29%

So, the Net Profit ratio is 14.29%.

**(4) Calculation of the Inventory Turnover Ratio:**Formula of the Inventory Turnover Ratio:

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from operations)/(Average Inventory )

Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Rs.19,20,000)/(Rs.8,00,000)=2.4 times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 2.4 times.

**(5) Calculation of the Current Ratio:Formula of the Current Ratio:**Current Ratio =(Current assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Assets = Net Worth + Long term Debts + Current Liabilities – Fixed Assets

=Rs. 15,00,000 + Rs. 9,00,00 + Rs. 6,00,000 – Rs. 14,40,000

= Rs. 15,60,000

Current Ratio =(Rs.15,60,000 )/(Rs.6,00,000 )=2.6:1

So, the Current Ratio is 2.6:1.

**Question 197. The following is the Balance Sheet of Arvind Mills Ltd. as at 31st March, 2018:**

**Solution197.(1) Calculation of the Quick Ratio**Formula of the Quick Ratio

(I)Quick Ratio = (Liquid Assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Liquid Assets = Bank + Marketable Securities + Trade Receivables

= Rs. 50,000 + Rs. 1,50,000 + Rs. 2,00,000

= Rs. 4,00,000

Current Liabilities =Trade Payables + Outstanding Expense + Tax Provision

= Rs. 1,60,000 + Rs. 10,000 + Rs. 1,30,000

=Rs. 3,00,000

Quick Ratio = (Rs.4,00,000 )/(Rs.3,00,000) = 1.33:1

So, the Quick Ratio is 1.33:3;

**(2) Calculation of the Total Assets to Debt ratio**Formula of the Total assets to debt ratio:

Total Assets to Debt ratio =(total assets )/( Debt (i.e.,Long Term Debts) )

= 20,00,000/( 7,00,000) = 2.86:1

So, the Total Assets to Debt Ratio is 2.86:1

**(3) Calculation of the Current Ratio**Formula of the Current Ratio

(iii)Current Ratio =(Current assets )/(Current Liabilities)

Current Assets = Liquid Assets + Inventory

=Rs. 4,00,000 + Rs. 3,00,000

= Rs. 7,00,000

Current Ratio =(Rs.7,00,000 )/(Rs.3,00,000 )=2.33:1

So, the Current Ratio is 2.33:1.

**(4) Calculation of the Gross Profit Ratio**Formula of Gross Profit Ratio:

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit )/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Gross Profit = Sales from Operations – Cost of Sales from Operations

= RS.30,00,000 – RS.25,80,000

= RS. 4,20,000

Gross Profit Ratio =(Rs.4,20,000)/(Rs.30,00,000) ×100 = 14%

So, the Gross Profit 14 %.

**(5) Calculation of the Operating Ratio**Formula of Operating Ratio :

Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from operations+Operations expenses)/(Net Revenue from operations )×100

Operating Ratio = (Rs.25,80,000+Rs.2,20,000)/(Rs.30,00,000)×100

= (Rs.28,00,000)/(Rs.30,00,000)×100 = 93.33%

So, the Operating Ratio is 93.33%.

**(6) Calculation of the Net Profit Ratio**Formula of Net Profit Ratio:

Net Profit Ratio = (Net Profit)/(Revenue from Operations ) ×100

Net Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Exp.

= Rs. 4,20,000 – Rs. 2,20,000

= Rs. 2,00,000

Net Profit Ratio = (Rs.2,00,000)/(Rs. 30,00,000) ×100 = 6.67%

So, the Net Profit Ratio is 6.67%.

**Question 198. Calculate Operating Profit Ratio and Operating Ratio from the following :-**Cash Sales from Operations RS. 2,00,000; credit Sales from Operations RS. 1,30,000; Sales from Operations Return (sales Return) Rs. 10,000; Cost of Sales from operations RS. 1,80,000; office and Administration Expenses Rs. 40,000; Selling expenses Rs. 36,000; Interest on Debentures Rs. 23,000.

**Solution198:Calculation of Operating Profit Ratio:**Operating Profit Ratio = (Operating Profit)/(Revenue from Operations ) ×100

Operating Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Expenses

Calculation of the Gross Profit = Net sales from operations – Cost of sales from operations

=(Cash sales from Operations – Credit sales from Operations – sales from Operations Return ) -Cost of sales from Operations

=(Rs. 2,00,000 + Rs. 1,30,000 – Rs. 10,000) – Rs. 1,80,000

= Rs. 3,20,000 – Rs. 1,80,000

= Rs. 1,40,000

Operating Expenses = Selling Expenses +Office Administrative Expenses

= Rs. 36,000 + Rs. 40,000

= Rs. 76,000

Operating Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Expenses

=Rs. 1,40,000 – Rs. 76,000 = Rs. 64,000

Operating Profit Ratio =(Rs.64,000)/(Rs.3,20,000) = 20%

So, the Operating Profit Ratio = 20%

Calculation of Operating Profit Ratio:

The Formula of calculation of Operating Profit Ratio

Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from opertaions+ Operating Expenses)/( Net Revenue from Operations ) ×100

=(Rs.1,80,000 + Rs.76,000)/( Rs.3,20,000 ) ×100

(Rs.2,56,000 )/( Rs.3,20,000 ) ×100 = 80%

So, the Operating Ratio = 80%.

**Question 199. Calculate Operating Profit Ratio and Operating Ratio from the following:-**Net Revenue from Operations RS. 4,00,000; Cost of revenue from Operations RS. 2,50,000; Operating Expenses RS. 90,000.

**Solution199:Calculation of Operating Profit Ratio:**

The Formula of calculation of Operating Profit Ratio

Operating Profit Ratio = (Operating Profit)/(Sales from Operations ) ×100

Operating Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Expenses

Calculation of the Gross Profit = Net Sales from operations – Cost of Sales from operations

=Rs. 4,00,000 + Rs. 2,50,000

= Rs. 1,50,000

Calculation of the Operating Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Expenses

=Rs. 1,50,000 – Rs. 90,000

= Rs. 60,000

Operating Profit Ratio =(Rs.60,000)/(Rs.4,00,000) ×100 = 15 %

**The Formula of calculation of Operating Ratio**Operating Ratio = (Cost of sales from opertaions+ Operating Expenses)/( Net sales from Operations ) ×100

=(Rs.2,50,000 + Rs.90,000)/( Rs.4,00,000 ) ×100

(Rs.3,40,000 )/( Rs.4,00,000 ) ×100 = 85%

So, the Operating Profit Ratio = 15% and Operating Ratio = 85%.

**Question **

**Solution200:Calculation of Operating Profit Ratio:**The Formula of calculation of Operating Profit Ratio

Operating Profit Ratio = (Operating Profit)/(Revenue from Operations ) ×100

Operating Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Expenses

= Rs. 1,20,000 – Rs. 45,000

= Rs. 75,000

Operating Profit Ratio =(Rs.75,000)/(Rs.3,00,000) ×100 = 25 %

**The Formula of calculation of Operating Ratio**Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from opertaions+ Operating Expenses)/( Net Revenue from Operations ) ×100

Cost of sales from Operation activity = Net Sales from Operations – Gross Profit

= Rs. 3,00,000 – Rs. 1,20,000

= RS. 1,80,000

Operating Ratio =(Rs.1,80,000 + Rs.45,000)/( Rs.3,00,000 ) ×100

(Rs.2,25,000 )/( Rs.3,00,000 ) ×100 = 75%

So, the Operating Profit Ratio = 25 % and Operating Ratio = 75 %.

**Question 201. Calculate Operating Profit Ratio if Operating Ratio is 78%.**

**Solution 201:Calculations of Operating profit ratio:Given**Operating Ratio Is 78%:

The Formula of calculation of Operating Profit Ratio

Operating Profit Ratio = 100 – Operating Ratio

Operating Profit Ratio = 100 – 78%

Operating Profit Ratio = 22%

**Question 202. **

**Solution 202(1) Calculation of inventory turnover ratio:**Inventory Turnover Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations)/(Average Inventory)

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 1,12,000/50,000

Inventory Turnover Ratio = 2.24 Times

So, the Inventory Turnover Ratio is 2.24 times

**Below is the calculation of Cost of sales from Operations activity:**Cost of sales from Operations activity = Opening Inventory + Purchases + Carriage Inwards – Closing Inventory

Cost of sales from Operations activity = Rs. 56,000 + Rs. 92,000 + Rs. 8,000 – Rs. 44,000

Cost of sales from Operations activity = Rs. 1,12,000

**Below is the calculation of Average Inventory:**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory+Closing Inventory)/2

Average Inventory = (56,000 + 44,000)/2

Average Inventory = 1,00,000/2

Average Inventory = Rs. 50,000

**(2) Calculation of Operating ratio:**Operating Ratio = (Cost of Revenue from Operations+Operating Expenses)/(Net Revenue from Operations)

Operating Ratio = (1,12,000 + 12,000)/1,60,000

Operating Ratio = 1,24,000/1,60,000×100=77.5%

**Below is the calculation of Operating Expenses:**Operating Expenses = Office Expenses + Selling and Distribution Expenses

Op2rating Expenses = Rs. 8,000 + Rs. 4,000

Operating Expenses = Rs. 12,000

So, the Operating Expenses is Rs. 12,000

Net sales from Operations activity = Sales from Operations – Sales from Operations Return

Net sales from Operations activity = Rs. 1,80,000 – Rs. 20,000

Net sales from Operations activity= Rs. 1,60,000

**(3) Calculation of Working Capital Turnover Ratio:**Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Net Revenue from Operations)/(Working Capital)

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = (Rs.1,60,000)/40,000

Working Capital Turnover Ratio = 4 times

So, the Working Capital Turnover Ratio is 4 times

**Working Note:-Calculation of Working Capital:-**Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Working Capital = Rs. 60,000 – Rs. 20,000

Working Capital = 40,000

**What is an Accounting Ratio?**

In simple terms, the accounting ratio is the comparison between multiple financial data of a company, generally used for analyzing the financial statements. It is one of the most prominent tools for companies to monitor the financial strengths and weaknesses.

**What are the objectives of ratio analysis?**

The key objectives for ratio analysis in accounting are as follows –

● Helps to supervise the company’s operating efficiency.

● Track the weaknesses of the company and formulate ways to cope with them.

● Help the companies in framing better financial decisions.

**What are the types of accounting ratios?**

Here are the different types of accounting ratios –

Liquid Ratio – This defines the firm’s capabilities to repay its liabilities. The liquid ratio is categorized into two subparts: Current Ratio and Acid Test Ratio.

Solvency Ratio – This ratio depicts the abilities of the firms to pay their shareholders in the long term.

Profitability Ratio – As the name suggests, it gives the accounts of profits for a firm.

Turnover Ratio – This ratio depicts the frequency of a firm’s performance by utilizing its assets efficiently.

**Why are accounting ratios important?**

Accounting ratios are the most useful tools for both business owners and investors as it highlights the financial standings of the company and formulates a bag full of strategies to elevate the financial status of the companies, benefiting both the investors and the business owners.

**What do you mean by debt-equity ratio?**

The debt-equity ratio is a type of solvency ratio that determines the solvency of a firm to pay its shareholders. It is one of the most useful ratios as it clearly highlights the relation between a company’s long-term debts and equity shares. This ratio is calculated by the following expression –

Debt-equity ratio = Long term debts / stakeholder’s funds

**What is the Acid Test Ratio?**

The acid test ratio is one of the popular accounting ratios used to determine the liquidity of a firm. It helps to determine how well the current assets of a firm can cover its liabilities to allow it financial stability. The acid test ratio is expressed by –

Acid Test ratio = Quick Assets / Current Liabilities.

Also refer to TS Grewal Solutions for Class 12