Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing

Please refer to below Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing. These questions and answers have been prepared by expert Class 10 Social Science teachers based on the latest NCERT Book for Class 10 Social Science and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. We have provided Class 10 Social Science exam questions for all chapters in your textbooks. You will be able to easily learn problems and solutions which are expected to come in the upcoming class tests and exams for standard 10th.

Chapter 1 Power Sharing Class 10 Social Science Exam Question

All questions and answers provided below for Exam Question Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing are very important and should be revised daily.

Exam Question Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing

Objective Type Questions

Question. Which of the following is a characteristic of power sharing.
(a) It gives people the right to be consulted.
(b) It provides power to one leg of the government.
(c) It increases conflicts between different political parties.
(d) It creates disparity.
Answer : (a) It gives people the right to be consulted.

Question. Which language was recognised as the only official language of Sri Lanka in 1956?
Which language is spoken by majority of Sri Lankans?
(a) Tamil
(b) Sinhala
(c) Hindi
(d) Urdu
Answer : (b) Sinhala

Question. When was Sinhala recognised as the official language of Sri Lanka?
(a) In 1954
(b) In 1955
(c) In 1956
(d) In 1958
Answer : (c) In 1956

Question. What does the system of ‘checks and balances’ ensure in power sharing?
(a) It ensures a balanced economy.
(b) It does not allow any discrimination.
(c) It provides unlimited power to the government.
(d) It ensures that none of the organs of government can exercise unlimited power.
Answer : (d) It ensures that none of the organs of government can exercise unlimited power.

Question. What is the prudential reason behind power sharing?
Why is power sharing good for democracies?
(a) It gives absolute power to the government.
(b) It gives absolute power to the citizens.
(c) It reduces the possibility of conflict between social groups.
(d) It ensures foreign investments.
Answer : (c) It reduces the possibility of conflict between social groups.

Question. What measure was adopted by the democratically elected government of Sri Lanka to establish Sinhala supremacy?
(a) Constitutional Reforms
(b) Monarchy Rule
(c) Majoritarian measure
(d) Community Government
Answer : (c) Majoritarian measure.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. Describe any three majoritarian measures adopted by the Sri Lankan Government to establish Sinhala supremacy.
Describe any three provisions of the Act which was passed in Sri Lanka in 1956 to establish Sinhala supremacy.
Why did the Sri Lankan Tamils feel alienated in spite of their long stay in Sri Lanka?
Explain three measures taken by Sri Lanka, according to an Act passed in 1956.
Which three provisions of the Act passed in Sri Lanka in 1956 established Sinhala supremacy?
What were the reasons for the alienation of Sri Lankan Tamils? What was the effect of this on the country?
Why Sri Lankan Tamils felt alienated?
Answer : Sri Lankan Tamils felt alienated because :
(i) Government adopted majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala Supremacy. In 1956, an Act was passed to recognise Sinhala as the only official language thus disregarding Tamil.
(ii) The governments followed preferential politics that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
(iii) A new Constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism.
(iv) Sri Lankan Tamils felt that none of the major political parties led by the Buddhist Sinhala leaders was sensitive to their language and culture.
(v) As a result, the relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities strained overtime and it soon turned into a Civil War.

Question. How can power be shared among governments at different levels? Explain.
Explain the vertical division of power giving example from India.
Answer : Vertical division of power: Vertical division of power means sharing of power among governments at different levels.
In India, there are three levels of the government:
(i) For the entire country : Central Government/Union Government.
(ii) At the provincial level : State Governments.
(iii) At the local level (i.e., rural and urban) : Local self governments like panchayats and municipal councils.

Question. In modern democracies, power is often shared among different organs of the government. Explain.
Explain how power is shared among different organs of the government.
Answer : Power is shared between different organs of the government such as legislature, executive and judiciary.
This system of power sharing is referred to as a system of ‘checks and balances’ because :
(i) All three organs are placed at the same level of power.
(ii) The power distribution ensures that no organ enjoys unlimited powers.
(iii) Each organ exercises a check on the others. Thus, there is a balance of power.
Power is shared among different organs of government i.e., legislature, executive and judiciary.
(i) Legislature: The legislature is concerned with passing the laws, controlling the finances of the state and delivering on the matter of public importance.
(ii) Executive: The executive machinery implements the policies of the government and executes the rules made by the legislative bodies.
(iii) Judiciary: The judiciary is concerned with the interpretation of the laws and has the power to punish those who commit crimes or break the laws. The judiciary can also check the functioning of the executives.

Question. How is the ethnic composition of Belgium very complex? Explain.
Answer : (i) Of the country’s total population, 59 per cent live in the Flemish region and speak the Dutch language.
(ii) Another 40 per cent of people live in the Wallonia region and speak French.
(iii) Remaining 1 per cent of the Belgians speak German.
(iv) In the capital city Brussels, 80 percent of people speak French while 20 percent are Dutch speaking.

Question. Mention any three demands of Sri Lankan Tamils?
Which three demands of the Sri Lankan Tamils accepted and met with, can settle the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka for good? Explain.
Answer : Demands of the Tamils :
(i) Recognition of Tamil as an official language.
(ii) Equal opportunities for Tamils in government jobs and educational institutions.
(iii) Provincial autonomy for Tamil dominated provinces.

Question. Describe horizontal and vertical power sharing in modern democracies.
Differentiate between horizontal and vertical division of powers.
What is horizontal distribution of power? Mention its any two advantages.
Answer :

Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing
Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing

Advantages of horizontal distribution of power :
(i) It allows different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers.
(ii) It ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the other.

Question. “Sharing of powers makes a country more powerful and united.’’ Do you agree with this statement and why?
“Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy”. Justify this statement with three suitable points.
How far do you agree with the statement that power sharing is keeping with the “Spirit” of democracy?
Give reasons why power sharing is desirable.
Why power sharing is necessary in democracy? Explain.
Write one prudential and one moral reason for power sharing.
Why is power sharing desirable? Explain moral reasons in this regard.
Why power sharing is desirable? Explain giving any three prudential reasons.
Answer : Power sharing is desirable in democracy because :
(i) Prudential reasons :
(a) It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability.
(b) It is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.
(c) Imposing the will of the majority, community over others may look like an attractive option in the short run, but in the long run it undermines the unity of the nation.
(ii) Moral reasons :
(a) Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise and who have to live with its effect.
(b) People have the right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.
(c) A legitimate government is one where citizens through participation, acquire a stake in the system.

Question. “Both Belgium and Sri Lanka are democracies, but they follow different systems of power sharing”. Support the statement by giving three points of difference.
Answer : Difference in power sharing of Belgium and Sri Lanka :
(i) In Belgium, the government does not follow preferential policies in matters of jobs and education. In Sri Lanka, the government follows preferential policies in matters of government jobs and education.
(ii) In Belgium, there is a special government called ‘Community Government’ to look after the cultural, educational and language related issues. In Sri Lanka, the major political parties are not sensitive to the language and culture of the Tamils.
(iii) In Belgium, there is no discrimination between different religions. In Sri Lanka, Buddhism is the official religion.

Question. Explain any three consequences of the majoritarian policies adopted by the Sri Lankan government.
Answer : Consequences of majoritarian policies adopted by the Sri Lankan Government.
(i) Tamils felt the government was not sensitive about Tamil language and culture.
(ii) Tamils felt discriminated against in jobs and education.
(iii) Tamils felt the government was practicing religious discrimination.

Question. Compare the different ways in which the Belgians and the Sri Lankans have dealt with the problem of cultural diversity.
Answer : The Belgian leaders recognised the existence of regional and cultural diversities:
(i) They amended their Constitution four times so as to work out an innovative arrangement that would enable everyone to live together in peace and harmony, i.e., there was sharing of power between the Dutch and the French both in the Central Government, State Government and Community Government. They followed a policy of accommodation.
(ii) This helped to avoid civil strife and division of the country on linguistic lines.
(iii) On the other hand, the Sinhalese who were in majority in Sri Lanka as compared to the Tamils followed a policy of majoritarianism and adopted a series of measures to establish Sinhala supremacy by passing an Act of 1956.
These measures alienated the Tamils leading to civil strife between the two communities.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question. Explain how Belgium was able to solve its ethnic problem?
Explain the power sharing arrangement in Belgium.
State the main elements of the power sharing model evolved in Belgium.
Answer : The main elements of the power sharing model evolved in Belgium are :
(i) Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French speaking ministers shall be equal in the Central Government. Some special laws require the support of the majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally.
(ii) Many powers of the central government have been given to State Governments of the two regions of the country. The State Governments are not subordinated to the Central Government.
(iii) Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. The French-speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the Central Government.
(iv) Apart from the central and the state governments, there is a third kind of government called the Community Government.
(v) The community government is elected by people belonging to one language community—Dutch, French and German speaking. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language issues.

Question. How majoritarianism has increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils? Explain.
Answer : Sri Lanka became independent in 1948. It immediately adopted measures to impose Sinhala supremacy.
(i) The Tamils felt alienated. No respect or recognition was given to their language, culture and religion.
(ii) They began a struggle for equality in jobs, entry to the university, recognition of their language and culture.
(iii) Slowly the conflict changed into a demand for regional autonomy.
(iv) The Tamils were grouped together in the north and east of Sri Lanka.
(v) Their demands were ignored, the conflict became more severe and by the 1980s, their demands had changed.
(vi) They wanted Tamil Eelam in the north and east. A civil war ensued, which killed thousands on both sides.
(vii) The flourishing economy of Sri Lanka disappeared and the conflict gave blow to the social, cultural and economic life of Sri Lanka.

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