Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries
Please refer to below Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries. These questions and answers have been prepared by expert Class 10 Social Science teachers based on the latest NCERT Book for Class 10 Social Science and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. We have provided Class 10 Social Science exam questions for all chapters in your textbooks. You will be able to easily learn problems and solutions which are expected to come in the upcoming class tests and exams for standard 10th.
Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Social Science Exam Question
All questions and answers provided below for Exam Question Class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries are very important and should be revised daily.
Exam Question Class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries
Objective Type Questions
Question. Which of the following industries is owned both by the state and some private industrialists?
(a) Cooperative sector industries
(b) Public sector industries
(c) Private sector industries
(d) Joint sector industries
Answer : (d) Joint sector industries
Question. Industries i.e., light, heavy and medium depends on this industry for their machinery–
(a) Shipbuilding Industry
(b) Aluminium Industry
(c) Automobile Industry
(d) Iron and Steel Industry
Answer : (d) Iron and Steel Industry
Question. Where was the first textile mill established in India?
Answer : (b) Mumbai
Question. Manufacturing comes under which of the following sectors?
Answer : (c) Secondary
Question. Arrange in following in correct sequence
(i) Aluminium Refinery
(i) Aluminium Smelter
(iii) Bauxite Quarry
(iv) Pitch from a colliery
Answer : (b) (iii)–(i)–(iv)–(ii)
Question. Public sector industries mostly market their steel through
(d) None to these
Answer : (c) SAIL
Question. On the basis of ownership industries are categorised as
(a) Large-scale and small-scale industries
(b) Public sector, private sector, joint and cooperative sectors
(c) Basic/key and consumer industries
(d) Agro-based and Mineral-based industries
Answer : (b) Public sector, private sector, joint and cooperative sectors
Question. Green Revolution has helped _______________ industry to expand in different parts of India.
Answer : fertilizer
Question. _____________ is caused by the presence of sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
Answer : Air pollution
Question. People employed in the ___________ activities manufacture the primary materials into finished goods.
Answer : secondary
Question. Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) is an example of ______________ industry in India.
Answer : Information Technology
Question. _____________ is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes.
Answer : Water Pollution
Question. Identify the industry with the help of the following features.
• Manufactures aircrafts, utensils and wires
• Light and a good conductor of heat
• Second most important metallurgical industry in India
Answer : Aluminium Smelting
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Where are the most of jute mills located in India? When and where was the first jute mill set up in India?
Answer : Most of the jute mills are located in West Bengal, mainly along the banks of the Hugli river.
Question. What is manufacturing?
Answer : Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.
Question. What is the position of India in the production of sugar, gur and khandsari in the world?
Answer : India stands second as a producer of sugar and occupies the first place in the production Gur and Khandsari.
Question. What do you mean by mineral based industries?
Answer : Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral based industries.
Question. Which is regarded as the index of a country’s development?
Answer : Production and consumption of steel is regarded as the index of a country’s development.
Question. By which factors are industrial locations influenced?
Answer : Industrial locations are influenced by availability of raw materials, labour, capital, power, market, transport and government policies.
Question. What is agro-based industry?
Answer : Industry which obtained its raw material from agriculture is known as agro-based industry.
Question. What recent developments have led to a rise in the iron and steel industries in India?
Answer : Latest developments like liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investments have given boost to the iron and steel industry with the efforts of private entrepreneurs.
Question. Where is the automobile industry located in India?
Answer : The automobile industry is located around Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.
Question. By what means does handspun Khadi provide large scale employment to weavers?
Answer : Our spinning mills are competitive at global level. India has largest working handlooms in comparison with the Indo-Pacific region. The rising demand for khadi exports has provided large scale employment to weavers.
Question. What is air pollution?
Answer : Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
Question. Which industries cause the air pollution?
Answer : Chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories.
Question. How have the agro-based industries in India given a major boost to agriculture?
Answer : The agro-based industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.
Question. Name any three physical factors for the location of an industry.
Answer : Availability of raw material, labour, power supply.
Question. Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.
Answer : Capital, market and government policy.
Question. How were cotton textile produced in ancient India?
Answer : In ancient India, cotton textile was produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques.
Question. What happened to our traditional industries during the colonial period?
Answer : Our traditional textile industries suffered a setback during the colonial period because they could not compete with the mill-made cloth from England.
Question. What are mini steel plants?
Answer : Mini steel plants are smaller, have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.
Question. What is an integrated steel plant?
Answer : An integrated steel plant is large, handles everything in one complex—from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.
Question. Define small-scale industry. What is the limit of maximum investment allowed in a small scale industry?
Answer : A small-scale industry is defined with reference to the maximum investment allowed in the establishment of a unit.
At present, the maximum investment allowed in a small scale industry is rupees one crore.
Question. How is Public Sector different from Private sector?
Answer : Public sector is owned and operated by government agencies where as private sector is owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Describe the various physical and human factors responsible for the location of industries.
Answer : (i) Physical factors:
(a) Availability of raw materials: Ideal location should be near the sources of raw materials.
(b) Power Resources: Power resources like coal and electricity must be available for the industry.
(c) Climate: Water and favourable climate.
(ii) Human factors:
(a) Cheap and efficient labour
(b) Capital and bank facilities
(c) Good market
(d) Transport facility
Question. Why is iron and steel industry known as the basic industry and a heavy industry as well? Explain.
Answer : (i) The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all the other industries—heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery.
(ii) Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material— defence,medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.
(iii) Iron and steel industry is a heavy industry because all the raw materials as well as finished goods are heavy and bulky.
(iv) Iron-ore, coking coal and limestone are required in the ratio of 4 : 2 : 1, all are heavy and bulky.
(v) Some quantities of manganese are also required to harden the steel.
Question. What is the status of India and China in steel production? Explain it with an appropriate graph.
Answer : In the 1950s, India and China produced almost the same quantity of steel. In 2004, India was the largest exporter of steel. Now, China has become the largest producer of steel while India is at the 2nd position. (Image Page No. 112)
Question. Describe any three features of chemical industry.
Answer : The role of chemical industry in the Indian economy are:
(i) It is fast growing and diversifying industry and contributes approximately 3 per cent of the GDP.
(ii) It is the third largest in Asia and occupies the twelfth place in the world in term of its size.
(iii) It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units.
(iv) Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors.
(v) Organic chemicals include petrochemicals which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibers, rubber, plastics, and dye stuffs.
Question. “Many of our spinners export cotton yarn while apparel manufactuers have to import fabric.” Explain this statement with appropriate reasons.
Answer : (i) The weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high quality yarn that is produced in the country.
Therefore, many of our spinners export cotton yarn while apparel/garment manufacturers have to import fabric.
(ii) If weaving sector is improved then yarn can be used in the country and garments can be exported to earn foreign exchange for the country.
Question. Why was the cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt in the early years? Explain.
Answer : Cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt in the early years because: (i) availability of raw cotton, e.g. belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat, (ii) nearness to market, (iii) transport, (iv) port facilities, (v) cheap labour, (vi) moist climate.
Question. Explain with examples the interdependence of agriculture and industries.
Answer : (i) Agriculture and industries are not exclusive of each other. They move hand in hand. The agrobased industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.
(ii) Industry depends on agriculture for raw material and to sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides and machines and tools etc. to the farmers.
(iii) Development and competitiveness of manufacturing industry has not only assisted farmers in increasing their production but also made the production processes very efficient.
Question. “Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases.” Mention them.
Answer : Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases. These are as follows:
(i) Primary treatment by mechanical means which involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
(ii) Secondary treatment by biological process.
(iii) Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of waste water.
Question. How has the ever increasing number of industries in India made worse position by exerting pressure on existing fresh water resources? Explain.
Answer : (i) Industries apart from being heavy users of water also require power to run them.
(ii) Today large industrial houses are as common place as the industrial units of many MNCs are exerting pressure on freshwater sources.
(iii) Industrialisation followed by the urbanisation multiplying the problems of water scarcity and exerting pressure on water sources causing their depletion.
Question. Classify industries according to their main role. How are they different from each other?
Answer : According to their main role, industries are of two types:
(i) Basic or Key Industries. They supply their raw materials to manufacture other goods.
Examples: Iron and steel, copper smelting, aluminium smelting, etc.
(ii) Consumer Industries. They produce goods for direct use by consumers.
Examples: Sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, etc.
Question. Classify industries on the basis of capital investment. How are they different from one another? Explain with examples.
Answer : (i) Classification of the industries on the basis of capital investment:
(a) Small scale industry (b) Large scale industry
(ii) Difference: If the investment is more than one crore on any industry, it is considered as a large scale industry. For example, iron and steel industry/cement industry (any other relevant example).
While the investment is less than one crore on an industry, it is considered as a small scale industry e.g., plastic industry, toy industry.
Question. How does industry pollute the environment?
Answer : (i) The increase in pollution of land, water, air, noise and resulting degradation of environment that the industries have caused, cannot be overlooked.
(ii) Industries are responsible for four types of pollution i.e. air, water, land and noise.
(iii) The polluting industries also include thermal and nuclear power plants.
Question. Explain any three factors which were responsible for the concentration of cotton textile industry in Maharashtra and Gujarat in early years.
Answer : (i) In the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
(ii) Availability of raw cotton, ready market, transport including accessible port facilities, abundant skilled and unskilled contributed towards its localisation.
(iii) Moist climate which is suitable for the cotton industry.
Question. Classify the industry on the basis of the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods.
Answer : On the basis of the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods, industries can be classified into:
(i) Heavy industries such as iron and steel, cement, aluminium, etc.
(ii) Light industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical industries, chemical industries, textile industries, etc.
Question. Explain the importance of IT and electronics industry in India?
Answer : (i) A major impact of IT and electronic industry has been on employment generation. 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women.
(ii) This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last few years because of its fast growing BPO sector.
(iii) The continuing growth in the hardware and software is the key to the success of IT industry in India.
Question. “Production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development.”Examine the statement.
Answer : (i) Steel production is the backbone of any country’s economy since it is the basic unit for the development of the nation.
(ii) Almost every industry depends on iron and steel for its manufacturing and production.
(iii) In today’s era of globalisation, consumption of goods is increasing. Thus, it can be concluded that growth in production of steel is regarded as the index of country’s development.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. Analyse the role of the manufacturing sector in the economic development of India.
What is the manufacturing sector? Why is it considered the backbone of development? Interpret the reason.
Answer : Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing. For example, iron and steel, aluminium, rubber, textile etc.
Manufacturing sector is considered as backbone of development because:
(i) It not only helps in modernising agriculture but also forms the backbone of our economy.
(ii) Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country.
(iii) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce.
(iv) Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of finished goods of higher value are prosperous.
Question. How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face?
What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?
Answer : Mini steel plants are smaller, have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. They have rerollers that use steel ingots as well. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specification, whereas integrated steel plant is large and handles everything in one complex—from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.
Iron steel industry is facing the following problems:
(a) High costs and limited availability of coking coal.
(b) Lower productivity of labour.
(c) Irregular supply of energy.
(d) Poor infrastructure.
Recent developments: Liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investment have given a boost to the iron and steel industry with the efforts of private entrepreneurs.
Question. Describe in brief the aluminium smelting industry in India with emphasis on:
(i) Any three uses of aluminium.
(ii) Any two locational factors for the industry
(iii) Any two states where aluminium smelting is done on a large scale.
Answer : Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India.
(i) Three uses of aluminium:
● It combines the strength of metals such as iron with extreme lightness and also with good
conductivity and great malleability.
● It is used to manufacture aircraft utensils and wires.
● It has become a popular substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
(ii) Two locational factors:
● Assured source of raw material at minimum cost.
● Regular supply of electricity.
(iii) Two states where aluminium smelting is done on a large scale:
● Odisha ● West Bengal
Question. How does industry cause air pollution? What are its impact on environment?
Answer : (i) Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
(ii) Air-borne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like dust, sprays, mist and smoke.
(iii) Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories that ignore pollution norms.
(iv) Toxic gas leaks can be very hazardous with long-term effects.
(v) Air pollution adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as a whole.
Question. Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry.
Suggest any three steps to minimise the environmental degradation caused by the industrial development in India.
Answer : (i) Steps to minimize the environmental degradation caused by industrial development in India are given below:
(ii) Minimizing use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
(iii) Harvesting of rain water to meet water requirements.
(iv) Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
(v) Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
(vi) Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
(vii) Machinery and equipments can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers.
(viii) Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise. Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and earphones.
Question. Give a detail account of information technology and electronic industry in India
Answer : (i) The electronic industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television and many other equipments required by the telecommunication industry.
(ii) Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other important centres for electronic goods are Mumbai, Pune, Delhi, Hyderabad, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.
(iii) By 2010-11, 46 software technology parks have come up across different centres of India.
(iv) A major impact of this industry has been on employment generation. 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women.
(v) This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last two or three years because of its fast growing BPO sector.
Question. What are software technology parks? State any two points of significance of information technology industry in India.
Answer : Software Technology Parks: These parks are those which provide single window service and high data communication facility to software experts.
Significance of IT Industry:
(i) A major impact of this industry has been on employment generation. Upto 31st March, 2005, the IT industry employed over one-million persons.
(ii) It is encouraging to know that 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women.
(iii) This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last two or three years because of its fast growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector.
(iv) The continuous growth in the hardware and software is the key to the success of IT industry in India.
Question. Explain the pro-active approach adopted by the NTPC for preserving the natural environment and resources.
Answer : (i) Optimum utilisation of equipment adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.
(ii) Minimising waste generation by maximising ash utilisation.
(iii) Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance and addressing the question of special purpose vehicles for afforestation.
(iv) Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.
(v) Ecological monitoring, reviews and online database management for all its power stations.
Question. Why are maximum Jute textile mills located in the Hugli Basin?
Answer : Location of Jute industries in Hugli basin:
(i) Proximity of jute producing areas.
(ii) Inexpensive water transport.
(iii) Good network of roadways, railways and waterways
(iv) Abundant water for processing raw jute
(v) Cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states
(vi) Good banking, insurance and poor facilities in Kolkata.
Question. “The challenge of sustainable development requires control over industrial pollution.” Substantiate the statement with examples.
Answer : (i) On one hand Industries lead to extensive industrial growth and expansion, other hand these are
also the cause of environmental degeneration which prompt to the different type of air, water pollution.
(ii) There is an increasing requirement to use a further sustainable model.
(iii) Industries must produce eco-friendly products and dump wastes responsibly.
(iv) Use of latest technology can help industries to control pollution and lead towards sustainable mode of operation.
(v) Industries use Reuse-Recycle-Refuse approach.
(vi) If necessary, dump waste in specified places, away from the land and water sources. For example, before dumping treat well and make useful for other than drinking purpose, stop using thermal plants in some of the locations.
Case Based Questions
Question. Read the source given below and answer the questions by choosing the most appropriate option.
Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors. Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country. This was the main philosophy behind public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India. It was also aimed at bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas. Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange. Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of finished goods of higher value are prosperous. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible. Agriculture and industry are not exclusive of each other. They move hand in hand. For instance, the agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.
(i) Manufacturing industries fall in _________ and agriculture in ___________ .
(a) Primary; Secondary Sector
(b) Secondary; Tertiary Sector
(c) Primary; Tertiary Sector
(d) Secondary; Primary Sector
Answer : (d) Secondary; Primary Sector
(ii) Manufacturing provides job opportunities to reduce dependence on agriculture. Identify which sector the following jobs belong to:
Choose the correct option.
(a) a–1, b–2, c–3, d–4
(b) a–3, b–4, c–2, d–1
(c) a–2, b–3, c–1, d–2
(d) a–4, b–2, c–1, d–3
Answer : (b) a–3, b–4, c–2, d–1
(iii) Name an agency which markets steel for the public sector industries.
Answer : SAIL
(iv) In order to attract foreign manufacturing firms what does a country need?
Answer : Infrastructure facilities