Exam Question for Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 The Living World
Question. A group of plants or animals with similar traits of any rank is
Question. Basic unit or smallest taxon of taxonomy/classification is
Question. A scientist connected with the study of variations, evolution and origin along with classification is known as
(a) Classical taxonomist
(b) Herbal taxonomist
(c) Modern taxonomist
(d) New taxonomist
Question. First act in taxonomy is
Question. A group of interbreeding organisms is
Question. Branch connected with nomenclature, identification and classification is
Question. In nomenclature
(a) Both genus and species are printed in italics
(b) Genus and species may be of same font
(c) Both, in genus and species the first letter is capital
(d) Genus is written after the species
Question. Which of the following is not a correct statement?
(a) Herbarium house dried, pressed and preserved plant Specimens
(b) Botanical gardens have collection of photographs of animals
(c) A museum has a collection of photographs of plants
(d) Key is a taxonomical aid for identification of specimens
Question. Which of the following statements best describes emergent properties?
(a) The properties of individual molecules which perform a specific chemical function
(b) The function of group of molecules is more than the abilities of a single molecule in the group
(c) The magical interaction of molecule in water
(d) All of these statements are examples of emergent properties
Question. Which of the following has least similar characters?
Question. Number of criteria use in classifying organisms in five-kingdom classification is
Question. What is correct?
(a) apis indica
(b) Trypanosoma gambiense
(c) Ficus Bengalensis
(d) magnifera indica
Question. Which one is odd/ not a category?
Question. The disadvantage of using common names for species is that
(a) The names may change
(b) One name does not apply universally
(c) One species may have several common names and one common name may be applied to two species
(d) All of the above
Question. An important function of botanical garden is
(a) Providing beautiful area for recreation
(b) One can observe tropical plants over there
(c) They allow ex-situ coservation of germ plasm
(d) They provide natural habitat of wildlife
Question. An organism is in the same class but not in the same family. It may belong to same
Question. The famous botanical garden of Kew is located in
Question. Which of the following is not applicable to biological species concept?
(b) Reproductive isolation
(c) Natural selection
(d) Gene pool
Question. ICBN stands for
(a) International code for botanical naming
(b) International code of botanical nomenclature
(c) Internal class of biological nomenclature
(d) International classification of biological nomenclature
Question. Classification system may have many uses. Which of the following is not a goal of biological classification?
(a) To depict convergent evolution
(b) To help us forget organisms and their traits
(c) To help us remember organisms and their traits
(d) To clearly identify organisms being studied
Question. The contrasting characteristics generally in pair used for identification of animals in taxonomic key are referred to
Question. The life can be attempted to be referred as a peculiar series of function associated with
(a) Transformation and utilization of energy
(b) Transmission and utilization of genetic information
(c) Metabolism and response to the environmental variations
(d) All of these
Assertion and Reason Questions
Directions: These questions consist of two statements each, printed as Assertion and Reason. While answering these questions, you are required to choose any one of the following four responses.
A. If both Assertion and Reason are True and the Reason is a correct explanation of the Assertion.
B. If both Assertion and Reason are True but Reason is not a correct explanation of the Assertion.
C. If Assertion is True but the Reason is False.
D. If both Assertion and Reason are False.
Question. Assertion: Character of family is more general as compared to character of genus.
Reason: Genera aggregates closely related species.
Question. Assertion: Chemotaxonomy is classifying organism at molecular level.
Reason: Cytotaxonomy is classifying organism at cellular level.
Question. Assertion: Living organisms show internal as well as external growth.
Reason: Living organisms undergo the process known as accretion.
Question. Assertion: In binomial nomenclature, both words are separately underlined.
Reason: Underlining indicates their Latin origin.
Question. Assertion: The biological species concept helps us to ask how species are formed.
Reason: The concept of biological species focuses our attention on the question of how reproductive isolation comes about.
Question. Assertion: Hierarchical system of classification is useful to reduce the voluminous description in the catalogue of organisms.
Reason: Characters of a larger category (like division) are not repeated for smaller/lower categories (family and order).
NCERT Exemplar Problems
Question. Which of the following ‘suffixes’ used for units of classification in plants indicates a taxonomic category of ‘family’?
(a) — Ales
(b) — Onae
(c) — Aceae
(d) — Ae
Question. Genus represents:
(a) An individual plant or animal
(b) A collection of plants or animals
(c) Group of closely related species of plants or animals
(d) A group of plants in a given are(a)
Question. Botanical gardens and Zoological parks have:
(a) Collection of endemic living species only
(b) Collection of exotic living species only
(c) Collection of endemic and exotic living species
(d) Collection of only local plants and animals
Question. All living organisms are linked to one another because:
(a) They have common genetic material of the same type
(b) They share common genetic material but to varying degrees
(c) All have common cellular organization
(d) All of the above
Question. Match the following and choose the correct option.
|A. Family||1. Tuberosum|
|B. Kingdom||2. Polymoniales|
|C. Order||3. Solanum|
|D. Species||4. Plantae|
|E. Genus||5. Solanaceae|
(a) A-4 B-3 C-5 D-2 E-1
(b) A-5 B-4 C-2 D-1 E-3
(c) A-4 B-5 C-2 D-1 E-3
(d) A-5 B-3 C-2 D-1 E-4
Past Year Questions
Question. Biodiversity of a geographical region represents:
(a) Genetic diversity present in the dominant species of the region
(b) Species endemic to the region
(c) Endangered species found in the region
(d) The diversity in the organisms living in the region
Question. Biosystamatics aims at:
(a) The classification of organisms based on broad morphological characters.
(b) Delimiting various taxa of organisms and establishing their relationships.
(c) The classification of organisms based on their evolutionary history and establishing their phylogeny on the totality of various parameters from all fields of tudies.
(d) Identification and arrangement of organisms on the basis of their cytological characteristics.
Question. Viable material of endangered species can be preserved by:
(a) Gene bank
(b) Gene library
(d) Gene pool
Question. ‘Taxon’ is the unit of a group of:
Question. The high boiling point of water is advantageous to living organisms because
(a) The environment seldom reaches the boiling point of water.
(b) Organisms can easily boil off enough water to keep themselves cool.
(c) It allows organisms to spread heat evenly throughout their bodies.
(d) Organisms can absorb a great deal of heat before they reach the boiling point from organisms and population.
Question. The term “New Systematics” was introduced by:
(a) Bentham and Hooker
(c) Julian Huxley
(d) A. P. de Candolle
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Linnaeus is considered as Father of Taxonomy. Name two other botanists known for their contribution to the field of plant taxonomy.
Answer : Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778), a Swedish botanist is regarded as Father of Plant Taxonomy. He published his work in book Genera Plantarum in (1737). Other two botanist are G Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker. Both are famous for their work on classification of plants based on natural characteristics.
Question. What does ICZN stand for?
Answer : ICZN stand for International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. It ensures that scientific name assigned to any animal has only one name and will be recognised by that name all over the world by scientific community.
Question. Couplet in taxonomic key means ……… .
Answer : Couplet is a pair of contrasting characters used as tool for identification key to help in identification of newly discovered organism.
Question. What is a monograph?
Answer : Monograph is a specialist work of writing or information on a particular taxon, i.e., family or genus or on aspect of subject, usually by a single author. Main purpose of monograph is to present primary research and original work and thus is non-serial publication, complete in one book (volume) of a finite number of volumes
Question. Amoeba multiplies by mitotic cell division. Is this phenomena growth or reproduction? Explain.
Answer : Amoeba multiplies by simple mitotic cell divisions giving rise to two daughter Amoebae. Here, the growth is synchronous with reproduction, i.e., increase in number.
Question. Define metabolism.
Answer : Metabolism is total sum of all biological reactions occurring in any living cell, which are absolutely controlled by enzymes. These reactions are of two types breaking down reactions (catabolism, e.g., cell respiration) and synthesing reactions (anabolism, e.g., photosynthesis).
Question. Which is the largest botanical garden in the world? Name a few well known Botanical gardens in India.
Answer : The largest botanical garden in the world is Royal Botanical Garden (RBG, Kew, London) The famous well known botanical gardens in India are (i) Indian Botanical Garden, Sibpur, Kolkata. (ii) Lloyd Botanical Garden, Darjeeling. (iii) Botanical Garden of FRI, Dehradun (UK). (iv) National Botanical Garden (NBG) Lucknow, UP.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. A ball of snow when rolled over snow increases in mass, volume and size. Is this comparable to growth as seen in living organisms? Why?
Answer : Growth in biological terms is characteristic feature of all living organisms. It relates to increase in size by accumulation of protoplasm in the cell thus results in increase in size of the cell. Whereas increase in number of cell by cell division results is the size of individual organism. Snow is an inanimate (non-living) object, while rolling over snow, it gathers more snow on its surface thus, it increases in size by physical phenomenon but not by biological phenomenon. So, this growth cannot be compared to that seen in living organisms.
Question. In a given habitat we have 20 plant species and 20 animal species. Should we call this as ‘diversity or biodiversity’? Justify your answer.
Answer : In a given habitat, there are existing 20 plant species and 20 animal species. They will of course exhibit the biodiversity of that given habitat because diversity refers to variation in a broad term and can be applied to any area. Whereas biodiversity is a degree of variation of life forms within a specified area.
Question. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) has provided a code for classification of plants. Give hierarchy of units of classification, botanists follow while classifying plants and mention different ‘suffixes’ used for the units.
Answer : ICBN has specified certain rules and principles is order to facilitate the study of plants by botanists. It helps in correct positioning of any newly discovered organism through proper identification and nomenclature. Given below is the taxonomic hierarchy, which is used while classifying any plant Kingdom–Plantae Division–phyta Class–ae Order–ales Family–eae/ceae Genus–First name of organism usually carrying Latin word and written in italics. Species–Second word of scientific name, also written in italics.
Question. A plant species shows several morphological variations in response to altitudinal gradient. When grown under similar conditions of growth, the morphological variations disappear and all the variants have common morphology. What are these variants called?
Answer : These variants are called biotypes. It is a group of genetically similar plants showing similarity when grown in same environmental and geographical regions. The same environment provide them the similar abiotic factors like soil, pH, temperature, etc. When they are grown in two different geographical regions, they are exposed to different abiotic characters thus, it affects their growth and development bringing changes in their external morphological features but, they have the same genetic constitution.
Question. How do you prepare your own herbarium sheets? What are the different tools you carry with you while collecting plants for the preparation of a herbarium? What information should a preserved plant material on the herbarium sheet provide for taxonomical studies?
Answer : For preservation of plant material on a herbarium sheet the following tools and steps are required to be followed. Tools Digger and pruning knife, sickle with long handle, vasculum, polythene bags, magazines or newspapers, blotting papers, plant press, field notebook, herbarium sheets, glue, labels, small transparent polythene bags. One can prepare herbarium sheets by cutting papers of size 29 41.5 cm (11 x1/2 x16x1/2)” . The preparation of a herbarium specimen required following steps (i) Collection of plant or plant parts. (ii) Pressing It involves the spreading and pressing of collected specimen over a newspaper so as to preserve its all parts. (iii) Drying It involves the drying of the specimen between the folds of newspaper. (iv) Poisoning Antifungal (dipping in 2%HgCl2) and pesticidal (DDT) treatment of the dried specimen. (v) Mounting It involves mounting of the specimen over a herbarium sheet. (vi) Labelling and identification of the dried specimen are the last steps, while preparing a herbarium sheet. Tools/equipments required for the collection of herbarium specimens are as follows (i) A tin or aluminium container of 50 × 30 × 15 cm size. (ii) Collection bags/plastic/polythene bags. (iii) Digger for digging roots. (iv) Magnifying lens of at least 10X magnification. (v) Field note book. A preserved plant material on the herbarium sheet may provide information about the family, genus, species, date of collection, area of collection, etc., for taxonomic studies.
Question. A plant may have different names in different regions or the country of world. How do botanists solve this problem?
Answer : There is a need to standardise the naming of living organisms such that a particular organism is known by the same name all over the world. Botanists have solved this problem by setting International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Scientific naming ensures that each organism has only one name in any part of the world. ICBN ensures that such name has not been used for any other organism. Each name has two components the generic name and the specific epithet. This system of naming is called bionomial nomenclature given by Carolus Linnaeus. e.g., mango has the scientific name Mangifera indica and potato is known as Solanum tuberosum.
Question. Brinjal and potato belong to the same genus Solanum, but to two different species. What defines them as seperate species?
Answer : Solanum is the largest genus of flowering plants which includes few economically important plants, e.g., potato, tomato, tobacco and brinjal. All these plants show some common morphological structures related to vegetative and reproductive similarities. So, they have the same common name of genus Solanum.
Question. Properties of cell organelles are not always found in the molecular constituents of cell organelles. Justify.
Answer : Cell, the basic structural and functional unit is composed of many cell organelles, i.e., ER, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts etc., each with a specific function. Each of these organcells are made up of various moleclules such as proteins, lipids, enzymes, metallic ions likeMg2+, Ca 2+, Mn2+, Na + etc, which helps in the functioning of cell organelles. e.g., molecular constituents like proteins (60-70%), lipids (25-30%), RNA (5 -7%)DNA, Mn2+ ETS, ATP synthase, etc. found in mitochondria function togather in a coordinated way to carry out cellular respiration and release energy, thus making it power house of cell. Thus, the molecular constituents of a cell organelle, forms the basis of its functioning irrespective of its individual molecular properties.
Question. The number and kinds of organism is not constant. How do you explain this statement?
Answer : The number and kind of organism is not constant, because of the following reasons Mechanisms adding new organisms by (i) Sexual reproduction (ii) Mutation (iii) Evolution Mechanisms reduing the number of organisms are (i) Environmental threats (ii) Loss of habitat (iii) Anthropogenic activities
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. What is meant by living? Give any four defining features of life forms.
Answer : The living organism exhibit distinctive characteristics, which are as follows (i) Growth All living organisms grow in size as well as in number. Plants show growth all through their life whereas animals up to a certain growth period after which growth ceases. (ii) Reproduction The process of reproduction is essential for the continuity of life on earth. Every organism whether unicelluar or multicellular gives rise to an individual of its own kind. Lower organisms usually reproduce asexually, e.g., Hydra, fungi, yeast, etc. Sexual reproduction is found in advanced group of organisms, which involves two parents. In Amoeba growth and reproduction however is synonymous. (iii) Metabolism There are thousands of enzymatically controlled reactions occurring in all living cells. These are synthesising (anabolic) and breaking down (catabolic) reactions. Hence, it is the most important characteristic of living organisms. (iv) Response to stimuli Consciousness and response to stimulus is the defining property of all living organisms. Plants respond to light, water temperature. Unicellular organisms also sense their environment and respond accordingly. (v) Cellular organisation The cellular organisation of the body is the defining feature of life forms. Cells work together in hierarchial manner group of cells make tissues, tissues make organs, organs make systems, systems when work in co-ordination form an individual. So, we can say living organisms are self replicating, evolving and capable of responding to external stimuli.
Question. A scientist has come across a plant, which he feels is a new species. How will he go about its identification, classification and nomenclature?
Answer : Newly discovered plant can be identified with the help of taxonomic keys, herbaria, monographs and preserved plant specimen. The scientist has to study the morphological and anatomical characters of the plants/plant parts, compare the characteristic features with the similar information available in the scientific literature and after that he can decide the exact systematic position of the plant, name it according to the rules of binomial nomenclature and fix it’s systemic position.
Question. Brassica campestris Linn (a) Give the common name of the plant. (b) What do the first two parts of the name denote? (c) Why are they written in italics? (d) What is the meaning of Linn written at the end of the name?
Answer : Brassica campestris Linn (a) Common name of the plant is mustard. (b) The first part of the name denotes the generic name and the second part is the species name of the plant. (c) According to ICBN, all scientific names are comprised of one generic name followed by a species name, which have to be written in italics always. It is a rule of bionomial nomenclature. (d) Linn means Linnaeus was the first to discover the plant. He identified, named and classified the plant, so credit is given to him by adding suffix ‘Linn’, after the scientific name B. campestris Linn.
Question. What are taxonomical aids? Give the importance of herbaria and museums. How are Botanical gardens and Zoological parks useful in conserving biodiversity?
Answer : The taxonomic aids are the aids which help in identification, classification and naming of a newly discovered organisms (plant or animal). It could be in the form of preserved document like herbaria or specimen kept at museums or scientific institutions. Other aids can be in the form of written document like monograph, taxonomic keys, couplets, etc. A new organism found can be studied while comparing it with living plants and animals living in protected areas like Botanical gardens, Zoological parks, etc. Botanical gardens helps in conservation of plants by (i) Growing important local plant species and keeping record of them. (ii) Growing and maintaining rare and endangered species. (iii) Supplying seeds for different aspects of botanical research. Whereas zoological parks also contribute in conserving biodiversity by (i) Providing natural environment and open space to animals, i.e., wild life species. (ii) Keeping them safe from their predators ensuring protection, food and shelter. (iii) Providing home to different native and exotic wild animals. (iv) Involving in the rescue of endangered species. (v) Facilitating breeding of animals and releasing them free. Thus, both botanical gardens and zoological parks play an important role in conservation of biodiversity.
Question. Define a taxon. What is meant by taxonomic hierarchy? Give a flow diagram from the lowest to highest category for a plant and an animal. What happens to the number of individuals and numbers of shared characters as we go up the taxonomical hierarchy?
Answer : Taxon is a scientific term used for different categories of classification. Taxonomic hierarchy is position of different taxonomic categories is ascending order, which describes the complete systematic position of any living organism. Given below is the flow diagram of taxonomic hierarchy
Question. A student of taxonomy was puzzled when told by his professor to look for a key to identify a plant. He went to his friend to clarify what ‘key’ the professor was referring to? What would the friend explain to him?
Answer : Identification of a plant is a scientific process. One has to study the general morphological characters along with its habitat, place of collection, time of flowering, etc., for identification. Several reference materials are available in the form of taxonomic keys. Professor meant to refer to these keys to help the student to identify the plant. This concept of key was introduced by Ray. Separate taxonomic keys are required for each taxonomic category. Keys are analytical in nature and are used as reference to help in identification of a newly discovered plant.
Question. Metabolism is a defining feature of all living organisms without exception. Isolated metabolic reactions in vitro are not living things but surely living reactions. Comment.
Answer : Metabolism is the sum of all synthesing (anabolic) and breaking down (catabolic) reactions. These are highly specific and enzymatically controlled reactions, which take place inside all the individual cells of unicellular or multicellular organisms. These are infact the basis of life. These reactions help organism to grow, reproduce, maintain their steady state and respond to stimuli. It can be understood by taking example of digestion. All organisms need nutrition in the form of food, which is digested by metabolic reactions either intracellularly or extracellularly depending upon the type of organisms. So, all reactions which help the organisms to breakdown food molecules and then assimilate them for their growth and reproduction are metabolic reactions. Few reactions may be performed outside the cells, under controlled conditions, Chemical reactions usually involve specific set of conditions to take place. All biological reactions are highly specific, selective and are enzyme catalysed.
Question. Do you consider a person in coma-living or dead?
Answer : Consciousness is a defining property of all living organisms. Whereas coma is profound or deep state of unconsciousness lasting more than six hours, in which person can not be awakened, fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light or sound. Such person exhibit complete absence of awakefulness and unable to consciously feel, speak, hear or move. Such person is brain dead and we consider such person as living dead.
Question. Some of the properties of tissues are not the constituents of its cells. Give three examples to support the statement.
Answer : Cell in any multicellular organism is the smallest functional living entity. When many morphologically and functionally similar cells start functioning as a group. They form a tissue, which makes an organ performing a special function. e.g., properties of tissues of stomach and intestine of digestive system is a co-ordinated function of different tissues to perform the functions of digestion of food material. So, this property of digestion is the property of tissues and the organ, i.e., stomach, but not the property of individual cells which make the tissue and organ of the digestive system. Similarly, many neurons make nervous system and muscles make muscular system, but individual nerve cell/muscle cell can not perform the function of control, coordination and locomotion.