Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
Please refer to below Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 2 Nationalism in India. These questions and answers have been prepared by expert Class 10 Social Science teachers based on the latest NCERT Book for Class 10 Social Science and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. We have provided Class 10 Social Science exam questions for all chapters in your textbooks. You will be able to easily learn problems and solutions which are expected to come in the upcoming class tests and exams for standard 10th.
Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Class 10 Social Science Exam Question
All questions and answers provided below for Exam Question Class 10 Social Science Chapter 2 Nationalism in India are very important and should be revised daily.
Exam Question Class 10 Social Science Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
Objective Type Questions
Question. Why did the Simon Commission come to India? Identify the correct reason from the following options.
(a) To control the campaign against the British in cities.
(b) To look into the functioning of the British.
(c) To initiate salt law in India.
(d) To suggest changes in the functioning of the constitutional system in India.
Answer : (d) To suggest changes in the functioning of the constitutional system in India.
Question. When was the Khilafat Committee founded?
Answer : (a) 1919
Question. Identify the appropriate reason from the following options, for the non-participation of industrial workers in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(a) Industrialist were close to the Congress.
(b) British offered them good salaries.
(c) They were reluctant towards the boycott of foreign goods.
(d) Growth of socialism.
Answer : (a) Industrialist were close to the Congress.
Question. Why did Gandhiji organize Satyagraha in 1917 in Kheda district of Gujarat?
(a) To support the plantation workers
(b) To protest against high revenue demand
(c) To support the mill workers to fulfill their demand
(d) To demand loans for the farmers
Answer : (b) To protest against high revenue demand
Question. Who led a peasant movement during the Non-Cooperation Movement?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Baba Ramchandra
(d) Mahatma Gandhi
Answer : (c) Baba Ramchandra
Question. ‘Hind Swaraj’ was written by:
(a) Abul Kalam Azad
(b) Sardar Patel
(c) Subhas Chandra Bose
(d) Mahatma Gandhi
Answer : (d) Mahatma Gandhi
Question. Which of the following is the most important factor for the growth of nationalism in India?
(a) British administrative reforms
(b) Introduction of railways
(c) Social reforms
(d) Colonial exploitation under the British rule
Answer : (d) Colonial exploitation under the British rule
Question. Who among the following two leaders led the Khilafat Movement?
(a) Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali
(b) Gandhiji and Sardar Patel
(c) Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Abul Kalam Azad
(d) Abul Kalam Azad and Jawaharlal Nehru
Answer : (a) Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali
Question. Which of the following statements is not true about the Simon Commission?
(a) It was appointed by Sir John Simon
(b) It did not have any Indian member
(c) It was opposed by all parties in India
(d) It was set up to look into the Constitutional system in India
Answer : (a) It was appointed by Sir John Simon
Question. Which of the following was the reason for calling off the Non-Cooperation Movement by Gandhiji?
(a) His arrest
(b) The Chauri Chaura incident
(c) Pressure from the British Government
(d) Round Table Conference
Answer : (b) The Chauri Chaura incident
Question. What is meant by begar?
(b) Forced labour without payment
(d) Working for nominal payment
Answer : (b) Forced labour without payment
Question. With which main demand did the Civil Disobedience Movement start?
(a) There was no Indian in the Commission
(b) It supported the Muslim League
(c) Congress felt that the people deserved Swaraj
(d) There were differences among the members
Answer : (a) There was no Indian in the Commission
Question. Which one of the following combination of colours was there in the Swaraj flag designed by Gandhiji in 1921?
(a) Red, Green and White
(b) Red, Green and Yellow
(c) Orange, White and Green
(d) Yellow, white and Green
Answer : (a) Red, Green and White
Question. The Non-Cooperation programme was adopted in the
(a) Lahore Session
(b) Nagpur Session
(c) Gujarat Session
(d) Second Round Table Conference
Answer : (b) Nagpur Session
Question. A rrange in following in correct sequence
(i) Mahatma Gandhi returned to India
(ii) First World War
(iii) Champaran Satyagraha
(iv) Rowlatt Act
Answer : (a) (ii)–(i)–(iii)–(iv)
Question. Correct the following statements and rewrite
To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a Non-Cooperation Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
Answer : To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a Khilafat committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
Question. Correct the following statements and rewrite
The Non-Cooperation movement was called off in 1934.
Answer : The Civil Disobedience Movement was called off in 1934.
Question. In ______________, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths.
Answer : Bengal
Question. Labour that villagers were forced to contribute without any payment called ___________ .
Answer : Begar
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. How does nationalism spread?
Answer : Nationalism spread when people began to believe that they all are parts of the same nation, when they discovered some unity that bound them together.
Question. Who created the first image of ‘Bharat Mata’?
Answer : Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Question. What is meant by forced recruitment?
Answer : A process by which the colonial state forced people to join the army.
Question. Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922?
Answer : A peaceful demonstration in a bazaar in Chauri Chaura, Gorakhpur turned into a violent clash with the police. Hearing of the incident Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Question. What was Poona Pact?
Answer : It was an agreement signed between B.R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi in September 1932. This Pact gave the depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative council but they were to be voted in by the general elections.
Question. Who formed Swaraj Party? What was the reason for forming Swaraj Party?
Answer : C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed Swaraj Party to :
(i) oppose British policies within the councils
(ii) argue for reforms
(iii) to demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic.
Question. Who painted the first image of Bharat Mata?
Answer : Abanindranath Tagore
Question. Who raised the slogan ‘do or die’?
Answer : Mahatma Gandhi raised the slogan ‘do or die’ during the ‘Quit India’ Movement.
Question. What were the views of Mahatma Gandhi regarding untouchables?
Answer : Gandhiji declared that we will not get Swaraj for a hundred years if we don’t remove the concept of untouchability.
Question. What was Champaran movement?
Answer : In 1917, Mahatma Gandhi travelled to Champaran to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Why did some Muslim organisations not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Why were Muslim organisations in India also give lukewarm response to the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Answer : Large section of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle because:
(i) Large section of Muslims feel ignored from the Congress after the Non-Cooperation Movement.
(ii) From 1920, Congress was associated with Hindu religious, nationalists group Hindu Mahasabha.
(iii) Hindu-Muslim riots were spread in various cities, so the Muslims did not cooperate the Congress.
Question. How did Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay create a spirit of motherland or nationalism?
Answer : (i) He wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to motherland.
(ii) It was included in his novel ‘Anandamath’.
(iii) This song was widely sung during the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, which united the people and created the spirit of nationalism.
Question. The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj.’ Support the statement with arguments.
Answer : i) Freedom meant right to move freely.
ii) Left the plantations and headed home.
iii) Gandhi Raj.
iv) Stranded on the way
Question. ‘Dalit participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement’. Examine the statement.
Answer : i)Congress did not want to offend the upper caste Hindus by including the Dalits.
ii) The dalits believed that political empowerment would solve all the problems , of their social disabilities.
iii) Many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to their problems.
iv) Ambedkar had clashed with Gandhiji at Second Round Table Conference for demanding separate electorate for dalits.
v) The dalits continued to be apprehensive of Congress led movements because it was dominated by conservative high class Hindus.
Question. How did Gandhiji try to integrate the Depressed Classes into society? Explain any three points.
Answer : i) He organised Satyagraha to secure entry into temples for them and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
ii) He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the untouchables.
iii) He persuaded the upper classes to change their attitude towards the depressed classes and give up untouchability.
iv) When the British conceded to demand of Dr BR Ambedkar to have separate electorates for the depressed classes, Gandhiji went on a fast unto death.
v) He believed that a separate electorate for Dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.
Question. Explain the effects of Non-Cooperation Movement on the economic front.
Answer : i) The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922.
ii) Foreign goods were boycotted.
iii) Production of Indian textiles and handlooms went up.
Question. “The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analyse the reasons.
Answer : i) Congress wanted to include the demands of the masses.
ii) Industrialists would get offended.
iii) The industrialists were supporting the Congress financially.
Question. How had the First World War created a new economic situation in India? Explain with three examples.
Answer : Three points on the First World War’s impact on the economic situation in India are given below:
(i) It led to a huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Government of India.
(ii) Custom duties were increased and income tax was introduced.
(iii) The prices of the goods doubled between 1913-1918 and created hardships for the people.
(iv) Forced recruitment was carried out and men from the villages were forced to become soldiers.
(v) It created a demand for industrial goods (jute bags, cloth, rails, etc.) and caused a decline of imports from other countries into India.
Question. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
Answer : (i) The image of Bharat Mata created by Abanindranath Tagore is portrayed as an ascetic figure. She is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Another image of Bharat Mata is shown with a trishul, standing beside a lion and an elephant both are the symbols of power and authority.
(ii) Germania was the symbol of the German nation. She is depicted as a female figure standing against a background where beams of sunlight shine through the tricolour fabric of the national flag. Germania is wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
Question. Explain the idea of Satyagraha according to Gandhiji.
Answer : (i) The idea of ‘Satyagraha’ emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
(ii) It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
(iii) According to Gandhiji, without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence.
Question. How did Mahatma Gandhi successfully organise Satyagraha Movement in various places just after arriving to India? Explain by giving three examples.
Answer : After arriving to India, Mahatma Gandhi successfully organised Satyagraha Movement in various places :
(i) In 1916, he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation of Indigo.
(ii) In 1917, he organised a Satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat who were affected by crop failure and plague epidemic and could not pay the revenue.
(iii) In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organize Satyagraha Movement amongst cotton mill workers.
Question. Write about the Rowlatt Act, 1919.
Answer : (i) In the year 1919, the British Government passed a new rule called Rowlatt Act, under which the government had the authority and power to arrest people and keep them in prisons without any trial if they are suspected with the charge of terrorism. It also provided the government with enormous powers to repress political activities.
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi was extremely agitated by enactment of Rowlatt Act. He was extremely critical about the act and argued that everyone cannot be punished for isolated political crime.
(iii) The Act was ill famed as ‘Black Act’ by the people and Indians protested against the Rowlatt Act.
Question. Describe the incident of Jallianwala Bagh which took place during the British rule.
Answer : (i) The Rowlatt Act was effective from 10th March, 1919. In Punjab, the protest movement was vast and strong.
(ii) On 10th April, two renowned leaders of the Congress, Dr. Satya Pal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew were arrested and were taken to an unknown place.
(iii) A public meeting was held on 13th April at Jallianwala Bagh in a small park enclosed by buildings on all sides to protest against the arrest.
(iv) General Dyer with his British troops entered the park, closed the entrance of the park and commanded his army to fire on the gathered people without any warning.
(v) The firing lasted for ten minutes and sixteen hundred rounds were killing about thousand people and more than two thousand people were left wounded and unattended.
Question. Explain the issue behind the Khilafat Movement.
What was the Khilafat Agitation? Why did Gandhiji give support to this agitation?
Answer : Khilafat Agitation:
(i) The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) initiated by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali was a mass movement against the reduction of temporal powers of Caliph after defeat of Ottoman-Turkey in the First World War.
(ii) To defend Khalifa’s temporal powers, Khilafat Committee was formed in 1919 as he was considered as the spiritual head of Muslims.
(iii) Gandhiji supported it because he saw it as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified National Movement.
Question. What were the three proposals regarding Non-Cooperation Movement, as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi?
Answer : Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages :
(i) Surrender of titles that the government awarded.
(ii) Boycott of civil Services, army, police, courts and legislative, councils, schools, and Foreign goods.
(iii) In case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
Question. “British rule in India would have collapsed if Indians had not cooperated.” How did this statement help in starting a mass movement in India against the British rule?
Answer : (i) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indian and if Indians had refused to cooperate, British rule in India would have collapsed within a year.
(ii) He proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.
(iii) It should begin with the surrendering of titles that the government had awarded to the Indians.
(iv) A boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative assemblies, schools and foreign goods would show their non-cooperation to the British empire.
Mahatma Gandhi felt that in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
Question. Describe any three major problems faced by the peasants of Awadh in the days of Non-Cooperation Movement.
Answer : Problems faced by the peasants of Awadh in the days of Non-Cooperation Movement were :
(i) Talukdars and landlords posed high rent on land and variety of cesses.
(ii) Various taxes were also implemented on them.
(iii) Peasants had to do begar and work at landlord’s farm without any payment.
(iv) They had no security of tenure and were evicted regularly.
(v) They had no right over leased land.
Question. Explain in brief the ‘Dandi March’.
Describe the main features of the ‘Salt March’.
Answer : (i) Mahatma Gandhi started his famous ‘Salt March’ or ‘Dandi March’ on 11th March, 1930 accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers.
(ii) The march was to cover 240 miles from Gandhi’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati Coastal town of Dandi.
(iii) On 6th April, 1930, he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law by manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
(iv) This marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Question. How did women participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Answer : Participation of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement :
(i) Women in large number participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) During Salt March thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to Gandhiji.
(iii) They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt.
(iv) They picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
Question. Who started Satyagraha? Explain the concept of Satyagraha.
What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha?
How can battles be fought with Satyagraha?
Answer : The idea of Satyagraha was started by Mahatma Gandhi. He emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth. If the cause is true, if the struggle is against injustice then physical force is not necessary to fight the oppressor.
Without being aggressive a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence. Gandhiji believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.
The growth of nationalism was intimately connected to the anti-colonial movement. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
Question. How was Rowlatt Act opposed by the people in India?
Answer : (i) Rallies were organized in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops and shops closed down.
(ii) The British administration decided to clamp down on nationalists.
(iii) Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.
(iv) On 10th April, the police fired upon a peaceful procession, provoking widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations.
(v) Martial Law was imposed and General Dyer took command.
(vi) On 13th April people assembled in Jallianwalla Bagh to protest against this black law.
Question. The growth of nationalism associated with the image of Bharat Mata. How?
Answer : (i) Abanindranath Tagore printed the image of Bharat Mata as a calm, composed, divine and pure.
(ii) Different artists painted the image in different ways and circulated in popular prints.
(iii) Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.
Question. What resolution was passed in Congress Lahore session in December 1929?
What was the significance of Congress Lahore session of 1929?
Answer : In 1929, Congress session in Lahore took place under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. Main provisions were:
(i) The Congress demanded ‘Purna Swaraj’ or complete independence.
(ii) They declared that 26th January would be celebrated as the Independence day.
(iii) People took a pledge to struggle for complete independence.
Question. Who was Sir John Simon? Why was Simon Commission rejected in India, and how?
Answer : Sir John Simon came from England and sent by the new Tory government of Britain and forced a Statutory Commission to look into functioning of the constitutional system in India.
The Commission was rejected because it did not have a single Indian member. They were all British. When Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan, ‘Go Back Simon’. All parties including the Congress and the Muslim League participated in the demonstration.
Question. Evaluate the contribution of folklore, songs, popular prints, etc. in shaping the nationalism during freedom struggle.
Answer : History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in making of nationalism. In the 19th century, nationalist toured village to village and collected folktales sung by local singers. These tales gave a true picture of our traditional culture and created a sense of pride in our past traditions. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore began collecting nursery rhymes and folk tales. In Madras, Natesa Sastri published collections of folk tales and published “The Folklore of Southern India”. Bankim Chandra Chatopadhyay wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland.
Question. How did the government suppress the Satyagrahis during Rowlatt Satyagraha?
Answer : (i) The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people.
(ii) Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets and do salaam to all sahibs.
(iii) People were flogged and villages were bombed.
(iv) Seeing violence spread, Gandhiji called off the movement. The British government violated the freedom of speech and expression.
Question. What was the Khilafat Agitation? Why did Gandhiji gave support to this agitation?
Explain the issue behind the Khilafat Movement.
Answer : The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. There were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor, the spiritual head of the Islamic world, the Khalifa.
To defend the Khalifa’s temporal power, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919 by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.
Gandhiji supported it because he saw it as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
Question. Discuss the various stages of the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi.
Answer : Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages:
1st Stage – Surrender of titles that the government awarded.
2nd Stage – Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
3rd Stage – If the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
Question. Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities?
Explain the circumstances in which Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slowed down in cities.
Answer : The movement slowed down for a variety of reasons:
(i) Khadi cloth was more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
(ii) The boycott of British institutions posed a problem as alternative Indian institutions had to be set up in place of British ones. These were slow to come up.
Question. Describe the role of Alluri Sitaram Raju in Andhra Pradesh during 1920s.
Answer : Role of Alluri Sitaram Raju in the Gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh:
(i) Alluri Sitaram Raju claimed that he had a variety of special powers like making astrological predictions, healing people and surviving bullet shots.
(ii) The rebels proclaimed him as an incarnation of God.
(iii) Raju was inspired by Gandhiji’s Non-Cooperation Movement.
(iv) Persuaded people to wear khadi and gave up drinking.
Question. Discuss the role of Lala Lajpat Rai in protest of the Simon Commission.
Answer : In 1928, the Simon Commission’s arrival in India led to a powerful protest. It was greeted peacefully with black flags under the slogan ‘Go Back Simon’. Lala Lajpat Rai participated actively in it. The British police used lathi charge on demonstrators to break the opposition. In this action, Lala Lajpat Rai was injured and finally died on 17 November 1928.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. Explain the response of the plantation workers to the Non-Cooperation Movement started by Gandhiji.
“Plantation workers had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi’s ideas and the notion of ‘Swaraj’. Support the statement.
Answer : (i) Plantation workers too had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj.
(ii) For plantation workers, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
(iii) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission and in fact they were rarely given such permissions.
(iv) When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantation and headed home.
(v) They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages.
(vi) However, they never reached their destinations because of railways and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
Question. When and why did Gandhiji go on fast unto death? What was its outcome?
Answer : Many dalit leaders stressed on demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930 and supported dalit’s demands. When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.
Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s point and it resulted in the Poona Pact of September 1932. It gave the Depressed Classes (later to be known as the Scheduled Castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
Question. What was Bardoli Satyagraha? Give a brief description of Vallabhbhai Patel’s contribution to the struggle.
Answer : Bardoli is a city in the state of Gujarat. In 1928, Bardoli Satyagraha was a major movement of farmers against the increase of land revenue. This Satyagraha led the foundation of the Civil Disobedience Movement against the British rule.
In 1928, the British raised the land revenue approx 30 per cent in Bardoli, Gujarat. This unjustified heavy tax was opposed by the farmers of Bardoli under the strong leadership of Vallabhbhai Patel, who was one of the most prominent leaders from Gujarat. This satyagraha got great sympathy in several regions of India.
The government tried to crush the movement through brutal action, but Vallabhbhai Patel left no stone unturned to ensure its positive outcome. Finally the government agreed the demands of farmers. Vallabhbhai was given the title of ‘Sardar’ by the locals of Bardoli.
Question. Under what circumstances did Mahatma Gandhi start the Quit India Movement? What were its consequences?
Answer : After the failure of ‘Cripps Mission’ and during the middle of the Second World War, Mahatma Gandhi decided to start another phase of movement, i.e., Quit India Movement. In this, he asked the British to leave the country immediately.
In Vardha on 14 July 1942, the session of Indian National Congress presented the historical ‘Quit India’ resolution, which was passed at the Bombay Session of the Congress on 8 August, 1942. Gandhiji thought that the British must Quit India without further delay. He raised the slogan ‘Do or Die’ which spread among the common mass very soon. But he warned the people not to be violent in any condition. The movement spread on larger scale. Workers went on strike, students, peasants, labourers and women joined the movement with full enthusiasm. Several leaders like Jaya Prakash Narayan, Ram Manohar Lohia, Aruna Asaf Ali, Matangini Hajra (from Bengal), Kankalta Barua (from Assam) and Rama Devi (from Orissa) participated actively in it.
Initially, the British responded with severe repression. All the major leaders were sent to jail. Thousands of people were killed in police firing. At the end, the government suppressed the movement, but the sheer scale of movement brought the British government down to its knees.
Question. Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation? How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Answer : (i) Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives.
(ii) And for a long time the Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation. It was keen only on their symbolic presence.
Women participated in Civil Disobedience Movement in following ways:
(i) During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women came out of their houses to listen to him.
(ii) They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail.
(iii) In urban areas these women were from high caste families, in rural areas they came from rich peasant households. Moved by Gandhiji’s call, they began to service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.
Question. How did different social group conceive the idea of ‘Non- Cooperation’? Explain with examples.
Answer : Some of the leaders within Congress were reluctant to start Non-Cooperation Movement because they wanted to oppose the British government through legal and constitutional means.
For example, they wanted to contest the elections for legislative councils that were scheduled to be held in 1920 and oppose the government from inside the council once elected.
Question. What was the impact of the Rowlatt Act and Satyagraha on the political situation in India? Describe.
Answer : Impact of the Rowlatt Act on the political situation in India:
(i) People organised hartals in cities and railways went on strike.
(ii) Shops were closed down.
(iii) Leaders were arrested.
(iv) At Amritsar, police fired upon a peaceful procession.
(v) Martial law was imposed.
Question. How had Non–Cooperation Movement spread in cities. Explain.
How did the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ spread in cities across the country? Explain its effects on the economic front.
How did Non-Cooperation Movement start with participation of middle class people in the cities? Explain its impact on the economic front.
Answer : The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement was started by the Congress party in January 1921. Initially, this movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students, teachers and lawyers gave up their institutions and profession and joined the movement. This movement began in different cities across the country. The Non-Cooperation Movement dramatically affected the economy of British India. The economic effects of the Non- Cooperation Movement were as follows –
(i) As foreign goods and foreign clothes were boycotted, the import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 and 1922, and its value dropping from 102 crore to 57 crore rupees.
(ii) In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or invest in foreign trade.
(iii) As people discarded imported clothes and started to use Indian clothes, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
Question. Explain the grievances of the peasants against the government. What steps were taken to organise Peasant Movement to fulfil their demands during the colonial rule?
Answer : Reasons of grievances of the peasants against the government were :
(i) Due to forest laws of the colonial government.
(ii) Depriving them of the traditional rights of entering the forest to graze their cattle or to collect fuelwood and fruits.
(iii) High land revenues.
(iv) Forced to perform begar.
Steps taken to organise Peasant Movement :
(i) Many Kisan Sabhas were organised.
(ii) Organised Guerrilla Militant Movement.
(iii) Attacked police stations and attempted to kill British police officials.
(iv) Gandhiji declared that no tax to be paid.
Question. ”Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Support the statement.
Answer : Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation. The sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles. Variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. History and fiction, folklore and songs helped with promotion of nationalism. Literature also helped to arouse national feelings. The ideas of nationalism also developed through the celebration of regional festivals. As the national movement developed nationalist leaders became more and more of icons and symbols in unifying and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
Question. Which incident marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement? Why did the peasants join the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Answer : Civil Disobedience Movement : Violation of Salt Law by manufacturing salt from sea water by Gandhiji marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Reasons for which the peasants joined the Civil Disobedience Movement :
(i) Rich peasants (Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh) were active in the movement. They were hard hit by the trade depressions and falling prices. The refusal of the government to reduce the revenue led to widespread resentment.
(ii) For the rich peasants, fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenue.
(iii) Poor peasants wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord be remitted so they joined the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Question. The Civil Disobedience Movement saw the participation of different social classes and groups. Give reasons for the participation of the following:
(a) rich peasants
(b) poor peasants
(c) business classes
(d) industrial working classes
How did different social groups participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain with examples.
Answer : The reasons for the participation of various social classes and groups in Civil Disobedience Movement are as follows:
(a) Rich peasants- Rich peasant communities like patidars of Gujarat and the jats of Uttar Pradesh joined the movement because, being producers of commercial crops they were hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. Due to the refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand made them fight against high revenues.
(b) Poor peasants- Joined the movement because they found it difficult to pay rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted.
(c) Business class- They reacted against colonial policies that restricted activities because they were keen on expanding their business and for this they wanted protection against imports of foreign goods. They thought that Swaraj would cancel colonial restrictions and trade would flourish without restrictions.
(d) Industrial working class- They did not participate in large numbers except in the Nagpur region. Some workers did participate in, selectively adopting some of the Gandhian programme, like boycott of foreign goods, as a part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions.
(e) Women- There were large scale participation of women in the movement. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail.
Question. Why did the poor peasants join the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34)? Why could not the Congress give full support to their demands?
Answer : The peasants joined the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) because poor peasantry were not just interested in the lowering of the revenue demand. Many had rented land. They could not pay rent because of the depression and dwindling cash incomes. They wanted the unpaid rent to landlord remitted.
Congress could not give full support because they thought rich peasants and landlords would be upset. It was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaign in most places. So, the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.
Question. Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension? Explain.
Answer : Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension:
(i) In December, 1931 Gandhiji went to London for the Round Table Conference, but the negotiations broke down and he returned disappointed.
(ii) In India, he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression.
(iii) Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both in jail.
(iv) The Congress had been declared illegal.
(v) A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts.
Question. Describe the incident and impact of the Jallianwala Bagh.
Explain the reason and effects of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
Explain the impact of Jallianwala Bagh incident on the people.
Describe the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and the aftermath. Which basic human rights did the British violate?
Answer : Incident and Impact of the Jallianwala Bagh :
on 13th April, large crowd gathered in Jallianwala Bagh. Some of them had come to protest against the government’s new repressive measures and others had come to attend Baisakhi fair. General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds to create a feeling of terror.
(i) As the news spread, crowd took to the streets in North Indian towns.
(ii) There were strikes, clashes with police.
(iii) Attacks on government buildings.
(iv) The government responded with brutal repression to terrorise people.
(v) Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground.
(vi) People were flogged and villages were bombed.
(vii) The British violated the freedom of speech and expression.
Question. How did the Civil Disobedience Movement come into force in various parts of the country? Explain with examples.
Answer : Civil Disobedience Movement came into force in various parts of the country :
(i) Gandhiji led the Salt March from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi with his followers starting the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) Thousands in different parts of the country broke the Salt Law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
(iii) In the country side like the rich Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh were active in the movement.
(iv) As rich peasant communities were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices, they became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(v) As the depression continued and cash invoice dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay the rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlords to be remitted and thus they joined the movement.
(vi) Merchants and industrialists supported the movement by giving financial assistance and refused to buy and sell the imported goods.
(vii) The industrial working class of Nagpur region participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM).
(viii) Railway worker, dock workers, coal mine workers of Chota Nagpur, etc. participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.
(ix) Women also participated in large numbers.
Question. Explain the effects of First World War on India.
How did the ‘First World War’ create a new economic and political situations in India? Explain with examples.
Explain any five major problems posed by the First World War in India.
Examine the effects of the First World War on the National Movement of India.
Explain How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
Answer : (i) The war created a new economic and political situation.
(ii) It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans.
(iii) To fulfil the loan demands taxes were increased, custom duties were raised. Not only this, a new tax in the form of income tax was also introduced.
(iv) Prices increased, doubling between 1913 and 1918. This hit the common people.
(v) Villagers were asked to supply soldiers and through force recruitment in rural areas.
(vi) During 1918-19, crops failed in many parts of India which created shortage of food.
(vii) Spread of influenza epidemic and death of 12 to 13 million people.
Question. Describe the incidence of Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre.
Answer : Jallianwalla Bagh massacre holds an important and significant position in the freedom movement of India. It took place in Amritsar on 13 April, 1919. On this day a protest meeting against the government’s new repressive measures (the Rowlatt Act) was being held at Jallianwalla Bagh in Amritsar.
The meeting was attended by a large number of men, women and children. The only entrance of the park was blocked by the British army on the orders of General Dyer. He ordered his troops to fire on the crowd without giving a word of warning. Thousands of people were killed and many were injured. It was the cold blooded murder of innocent people.
As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to streets in many north Indian towns. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings. The government responded with brutal repression. The satyagrahis were forced to rub their nose on the ground, crawl on the streets and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs. People were flogged and villages were bombed.
Question. Who had organised the dalits into the ‘Depressed Classes Association’ in 1930? Describe his achievements.
Answer : Dr. B.R. Ambedkar organised dalits into the ‘Depressed Classes Association in 1930. He clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table conference by demanding separate for dalits. When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast into death because he became apprehensive regarding the grant of separate electorates to the dalits.
Poona Pact was signed in 1932 between the two leaders B.R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi to resolve the question of separate electorates for dalits. It gave depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
Question. Why did Mahatma Gandhi start the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’? How did this movement unite the country? Explain.
Answer : On 31 January 1930, Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. Some of these were of general interest; others were specific demands of different classes, from industrialists to peasants. The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. That is why Gandhi ji started the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Mahatma Gandhi found salt as a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. So Mahatma Gandhi started his famous salt march accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers from Gandhi ji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi. Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi wherever he stopped, and he told them what he meant by swaraj and urged them to peacefully defy the British. Thousands in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories. As the movement spread, foreign cloth was boycotted, and liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes, village officials resigned, and in many places forest people violated forest laws.
Question. Explain the new economic and political situation created during the First World War in India.
How the First World War helped in the growth of the National movement in India?
What was the impact of the World War-I on the National movement in India?
Explain any five major problems posed by the First World War in India.
Answer : The First World War created new economic and political situations because:
(i) It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
(ii) Prices increased doubling between 1913-18 leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
(iii) Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers through forced recruitment in rural areas caused wide spread anger.
(iv) During 1918-19, crops failed in many parts of India which created shortage of food.
(v) Spread of Influenza epidemic and famine–12 to 13 million people died. At this stage a new leader appeared and suggested a new mode of struggle.
Question. How could Non-Cooperation become a movement? Give your opinion.
Answer : Non-Cooperation became a movement:
(i) It was the view of Gandhiji that the British rule was set in India with the cooperation of India.
(ii) If Indians refused cooperation, British rule in India would collapse within a year and Swaraj would come.
(iii) Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.
(iv) In case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
(v) Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively, mobilising popular support of the movement.
Case Based Questions
Question. Read the sources given below and answer the questions by choosing the most appropriate option.
Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915. As you know, he had come from South Africa where he had successfully fought the racist regime with a novel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor. People – including the oppressors – had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence. By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians. After arriving in India, Mahatma Gandhi successfully organised satyagraha movements in various places. In 1917 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system. Then in 1917, he organised a satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed. In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organise a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.
(i) In which among the following years Gandhiji returned to India, and from where?
(a) 1910, England
(b) 1915, South Africa
(c) 1915, Sweden
(d) 1910, South Africa the above
Answer : (b) 1915, South Africa
(ii) Identify the place where Gandhiji organised a Satyagraha against the oppressive plantation system.
Answer : (a) Champaran
(iii) Where did Gandhiji successfully organise the Satyagraha movement in 1917 and 1918 respectively?
Answer : Kheda and Ahmedabad
(iv) Which of the following statements correctly describes the idea of Satyagraha?
(a) It emphasises the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
(b) It is a religion of many communities in India.
(c) It is based on the aggression of Indian against British.
(d) All of the above
Answer : It emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
Question. Read the source given below and answer the questions by choosing the most appropriate option.
‘It is said of “passive resistance” that it is the weapon of the weak, but the power which is the subject of this article can be used only by the strong. This power is not passive resistance; indeed it calls for intense activity. The movement in South Africa was not passive but active… ‘Satyagraha is not physical force. A satyagrahi does not inflict pain on the adversary; he does not seek his destruction… In the use of satyagraha, there is no ill-will whatever. ‘ Satyagraha is pure soul-force. Truth is the very substance of the soul. That is why this force is called satyagraha. The soul is informed with knowledge. In it burns the flame of love. …Non-violence is the supreme dharma… ‘It is certain that India cannot rival Britain or Europe in force of arms. The British worship the war-god and they can all of them become, as they are becoming, bearers of arms. The hundreds of millions in India can never carry arms. They have made the religion of non-violence their own…’
(i) Identify the motive behind the passive resistance from the following options–
(a) It is not a physical force.
(b) A Satyagrahi does not inflict pain on the adversary.
(c) Non-violence is the supreme dharma.
(d) All of the above
Answer : (d) All of the above
(ii) Which of the following is not the concept of Satyagraha?
(a) It emphasises the power of truth and the need to search of truth.
(b) With an aggression a satyagrahi could win the battle.
(c) Gandhiji believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.
(d) If the struggle is against injustice then physical force is not necessary to fight.
Answer : (b) With an aggression a satyagrahi could win the battle.
(iii) What does correctly describe the Satyagrahi?
Answer : Passive resistance
(iv) Who started the idea of Satyagraha?
Answer : Mahatma Gandhi
Question. Read the sources given below and answer the questions by choosing the most appropriate option.
In 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, as president of the Muslim League,reiterated the importance of separate electorate for the Muslims as an important safeguard for their minority political interests. His statement is supposed to have provided the intellectual justification for the Pakistan demand that came up in subsequent years. This is what he said: ‘I have no hesitation in declaring that if the principle that the Indian Muslim is entitled to full and free development on the lines of his own culture and tradition in his own Indian home-lands is recognised as the basis of a permanent communal settlement, he will be ready to stake his all for the freedom of India. The principle that each group is entitled to free development on its own lines is not inspired by any feeling of narrow communalism… A community which is inspired by feelings of ill-will towards other communities is low and ignoble. I entertain the highest respect for the customs, laws, religions and social institutions of other communities. Nay, it is may duty according to the teachings of the Qurn, even to defend their places of worship, if need be. Yet I love the communal group which is the source of life and behaviour and which has formed me what I am by giving me its religion, its literature, its thought, its culture and thereby its whole past as a living operative factor in my present consciousness… ‘Communalism in its higher aspect, then, is indispensable to the formation of a harmonious whole in a country like India. The units of Indian society are not territorial as in European countries… The principle of European democracy cannot be applied to India without recognising the fact of communal groups. The Muslim India within India is, therefore, perfectly justified… ‘The Hindu thinks that separate electorates are contrary to the spirit to true nationalism, because he understands the word “nation” to mean a kind of universal amalgamation in which no communal entity ought to retain its private individuality. Such a state of things, however, does not exist. India is a land of racial and religious variety. Add to this the general economic inferiority of the Muslims, their enormous debt, especially in the Punjab, and their insufficient majorities in some of the provinces, as at present constituted and you will begin to see clearly the meaning of our anxiety to retain separate electorates.’
(i) When did Muhammad Iqbal become the president of All India Muslim League?
Answer : (a) 1930
(ii) Which among the following statements justify/justifies the demand for separate electorates by the Muslim League?
(a) Communalism in its higher aspect, then, is indispensable to the formation of a harmonious whole in a country like India.
(b) The units of Indian society are not territorial as in European countries.
(c) The principle of European democracy can be applied to India with recognising the fact of communal groups.
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Answer : (d) Both (a) and (b)
(iii) Sir Iqbal said that the principal of European democracy cannot be applied to India without…..
(Complete the statement)
Answer : Sir Iqbal said that the principal of European democracy cannot be applied to India without recognising the fact of communal groups.
(iv) What is a nation as per the given source?
Answer : Nation is a kind of universal amalgamation as per given source.