Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation

Please refer to below Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation. These questions and answers have been prepared by expert Class 10 Social Science teachers based on the latest NCERT Book for Class 10 Social Science and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. We have provided Class 10 Social Science exam questions for all chapters in your textbooks. You will be able to easily learn problems and solutions which are expected to come in the upcoming class tests and exams for standard 10th.

Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Social Science Exam Question

All questions and answers provided below for Exam Question Class 10 Social Science Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation are very important and should be revised daily.

Exam Question Class 10 Social Science Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation

Objective Type Questions

Question. In 1900, E.T. Paull was a popular publisher in which of the following fied?
(a) Book
(b) Music
(c) Art
(d) Craft
Answer : (b) Music

Question. Which of the following coastal regions of Gujarat connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports?
(a) Gandhinagar
(b) Dandi
(c) Surat
(d) Rajkot
Answer : (c) Surat

Question. Poor peasants and vagrants moved to the cities in large numbers in search of:
(a) Water
(b) Metals
(c) Agriculture
(d) Jobs
Answer : (a) Water

Question. In which of the following seasons, at the waterfront was the time that ships were repaired and spruced up?
(a) Winter
(b) Summer
(c) Spring
(d) Monsoon
Answer : (a) Winter

Question. Which of the following images was most commonly used to popularise baby products?
(a) Baby Ganesha
(b) Baby Balram
(c) Baby Rama
(d) Baby Krishna
Answer : 
(d) Baby Krishna

Question. Which of the following Indian gods and goddesses were shown in imported cloth labels?
(a) Kartika
(b) Lakshmi
(c) Saraswati
(d) All of these
Answer : 
(d) All of these

Question. Which of the following figures were used to create respect for the product?
(a) Historic figures
(b) Numeric figures
(c) Cultural figures
(d) All of these
Answer : (a) Historic figures

Question. Spinning Jenny was devised in which of the following years?
(a) 1857
(b) 1764
(c) 1761
(d) 1947
Answer : (b) 1764

Question. The countries to the east of the Mediterranean, usually referring to Asia called:
(a) Orient
(b) Anglo
(c) Axis power
(d) Colonies
Answer : (a) Orient

Question. The term Orient arises out of a western viewpoint that sees this region as:
(a) pre-modern
(b) traditional
(c) mysterious
(d) All of these
Answer : 
(d) All of these

Question. The label was needed to make the place of ________________ and the name of the company familiar to the buyer.
Answer : manufacture

Question. Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from _______________dominated the international market in textiles. 
Answer : India

Question. State whether the following statements are true or false
New factories were set up during the First World War and old ones ran multiple shifts.
Answer : True

Question. State whether the following statements are true or false
In the late eighteenth century, the number of factories multiplied in England.
Answer : True

Question. State whether the following statements are true or false
Cotton piece goods production in India declined between 1900 and 1912.
Answer : False

Question. Correct the following statements and rewrite
Gas works and breweries were especially busy through the hot months.
Answer : Gas works and breweries were specially busy through the cold months.

Question. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option:
Assertion (A): The proto-industrial system was the part of a network of commercial exchanges.
Reason (R): It was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

Question. Match the following :
(i) Seth Hukumchand (a) Bird Heiglers & Co.
(ii) J.N. Tata (b) chambers of commerce
(iii) European Managing Agency (c) to get new recruits
(iv) European merchant-industrialists (d) Marwari businessman
(v) jobber (e) first iron and steel works
Answer : (i)–(d), (ii)–(e), (iii)–(a), (iv)–(b), (v)–(c)

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question. Name the book published by E.T. Paull.
Answer : Dawn of the Century.

Question. How did Indian industrialists establish their empire in Bombay?
Answer : In Bombay, Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and J.N. Tata built huge industrial empires in India. They created their wealth from export to China and from raw cotton shipments to England.

Question. How did commercial groups operate within India?
Answer : (i) They carried goods from one place to another,
(ii) Banking money,
(iii) Transferring funds between cities,
(iv) Financing traders.

Question. Where did the workers come from to work in cotton mills?
Answer : In Bombay cotton industries workers came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri. The mills of Kanpur got most of their workers from the district of Kanpur.

Question. Whose pictures were shown on the trade magazine?
Answer : Two magicians (i) Aladdin represents East and Past, (ii) Mechanic represents West and Modernity.

Question. Name the seasonal industries that require labour.
Answer : Book binding, printers, catering to Christmas, ship repair.

Question. Name a country having less demand for labour.
Answer : America and Britain.

Question. Define the term carding. 
Answer : The process in which fibres, such as cotton or wool, are prepared prior to spinning.

Question. How did the industrialists solve the problem of shortage of labour?
Answer : They used mechanical power so that the need for human labour can be minimised.

Question. Why did the women workers attack the Spinning Jenny?
Answer : The women workers attacked the Spinning Jenny in the woollen industry because they fear that these machines will deprive them of jobs, and they would be unemployed again. This conflict continued for a long time.

Question. How did advertisement become a vehicle of the naturalist message of Swadeshi?
Answer : The Indian manufacturers advertised the naturalist message and persuaded the people to buy Indian products. The goddess is shown offering cloth produced in an Ahmedabad mill and asking people to use things made in India. They advertised the message of ‘Be Indian and Buy Indian’.

Question. Who created the cotton mill?
Answer : Richard Arkwright

Question. What does Orient mean?
Answer : The countries to the east of the Mediterranean.

Question. Which were the first dynamic industries of Great Britain?
Answer : Cotton and metals followed by iron and steel industries.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. How proto-industrial system was part of a network of commercial exchanges?
Answer : Production was controlled by merchants and the goods were purchased by a vast number of producers working within their homes. At each stage of production 20-25 workers were employed by each merchant.
Each clothier was controlling hundreds of workers.

Question. Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation. Why was it successful in the countryside in England in the 17th century? 
Answer : Even before factories began to be set up in England and Europe, there was large-scale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on factories. Rather this was based on cottage industries. This period was referred to as proto-industrialization by the historians. It was successful due to the following reasons:
(i) The peasants had been shut out of village commons due to enclosure movement.
(ii) Now they looked for alternative source of income.

Question. How did Indian industrialists accumulate huge wealth?
Answer : (i) They accumulated wealth through other trade network.
(ii) Some merchants from Madras traded with Burma.
(iii) Some others had links with the Middle East and East Africa.

Question. What was the effect of Napoleonic wars on the lives of workers?
Answer : Due to the Napoleonic wars–
(i) The earning of the workers decreased.
(ii) Workers could buy a few things with the same wages.
(iii) The income of the workers depend upon the number of the days they work, not on the wage rate.
(iv) About 10 per cent of the urban population was very poor.
(v) In 1830s the unemployment increased between 35 and 75 per cent in different regions.

Question. How did the advertisements play an important role in expanding the markets for products? Or
How did advertisements shape a new consumer culture?
Answer : Consumers were attracted by the advertisements:
(i) They made products appear necessary.
(ii) They tried to shape the minds of people and create new needs.
(iii) They helped in spreading awareness of the product.

Question. Why did the manufacturers use bold labels on the cloth bundles?
Answer : (i) The label was needed to make the place of manufacturers and the name of the company familiar to the buyer.
(ii) They were also to be a mark of quality.
(iii) When buyer saw a label ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold, they felt confident in buying the cloth.

Question. How did European agencies control Indian industries?
Answer : (i) These agencies mobilised capital, set up joint-stock companies and managed them.
(ii) In most instances, Indian financiers provided the capital while European agencies made all investment and business decisions.
(iii) The European merchants, industrialists had their own chambers of commerce, which did not allow Indian businessmen to join them.

Question. How did the workers get job in the industrial cities?
Answer : The number of mills and demand for the workers increased but
(i) Getting jobs was always difficult.
(ii) The number of workers were always more than the jobs.
(iii) Entry into mills was also restricted.
(iv) Poor villagers were employed through jobber.

Question. Who invented the Spinning Jenny and when? How did it function? Why did it reduce the demand of labour?
Answer : Spinning Jenny was invented by James Hargreaves in 1794. This machine could set in motion a number of spindes and spin several threads at the same time. It speeded up the spinning process and hence reduced the demand of the labour.

Question. How did proto-industrialisation affect the rural peasants and artisans? 
Answer : Affects:
(i) Open fields were disappearing and commons were being enclosed so common people had no alternative sources of income.
(ii) Many had small plots of land which could not provide work for all family members.
(iii) Merchants offered them advances for which they agreed.
(vi) They got a source of income which supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation.

Question. Why did London come to be known as a finishing centre ?
Answer : The merchant clothier in England purchased wool from a wool staples, carried it to the spinner, yarn taken to the weavers, fuller then to dyers.
The finishing was done in London before the export merchant sold the cloth in the international market, so London came to be known as a finishing centre.

Question. Why were the British worried about imports from other countries?
Answer : As cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups began worrying about imports from other countries.
(i) They pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textile so that man-crafted goods could sell in Britain, without facing any competition from outside.
(ii) Industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactured in Indian market as well.
(iii) Export of British cotton goods increased in the early 19th century.

Question. How did the cotton production boom in the late 19th century?
Answer : In 1760 Britain was importing only 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton for textile industry.
(i) By 1787 the import increased up to 22 million pounds.
(ii) Because a number of changes occurred in the process of production.

Question. From which pre-colonial ports was vibrant sea trade operated?
Answer : (i) Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea ports.
(ii) Masulipatnam on the Coromondal coast.
(iii) Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with South-East Asian ports.

Question. Why did manufacturers use printing calendars to popularise their products?
Answer : (i) Calendars were used even by the people who could not read.
(ii) They were hung in tea shops, in poor people’s home and middle class apartments to make the products famous.
(iii) Those who hung the calenders had to see the advertisement day after day through the year.

Question. Name the images of gods and goddesses that were shown on imported cloth label. Why did these images appear on the labels?
Answer : (a) Images of Kartika, Krishna, (b) Lakshmi, (c) Saraswati, etc. were shown on imported cloth label.
Images of Indian gods and goddesses regularly appeared on the labels as it gave divine approval to the goods being sold. These images of Lord Krishna or Saraswati intended to make the manufacture from a foreign land appear familiar to Indian people.

Question. Give some differences between earlier and present-day advertisements. 
Answer : The earlier advertisements mostly used the figures but today brand is important.
(i) Earlier advertisement explored the respect for royal personages but today celebrities endorse the products.
(ii) Nowadays there are many things which advertise the products like newspapers, hoardings, pamphlets, televisions, cell phones, internet online shopping, etc.
Hence, the whole mechanism of advertising product has gone through complete change.

Long Answer Type Questions :

Question. Why did the merchants from the towns of Europe began moving to the countryside in the 18th century?
Answer : (i) Merchants supply money to the peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.
(ii) With the expansion of the world trade, the demand for the goods began growing.
(iii) The merchants could not expand their production in the towns because of the trade guilds.
(vi) R ulers granted different guilds the right to produce and trade in specific products.
(v) So was difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns so they began moving to the countryside.

Question. Who was a jobber? Mention any four functions of a jobber?
Answer : (i) The jobber was an old and trusted worker, employed by the industrialist.
(ii) He got people from the villages, ensured them jobs.
(iii) He helped the workers to settle in the cities.
(iv) He provided them money in the times of crisis. He was a person with some power and authority.
(i) The jobber got people from his village.
(ii) He ensured them jobs.
(iii) He helped the workers to settle in the cities.
(iv) He provided money in times of crisis.

Question. “Series of changes affect the pattern of Industrialisation in India by the early twentieth century.” Analyse the statement.
Answer : Series of changes affected the pattern of industrialisation in India by the earth twentieth century. Some of these changes were: In the early twentieth century the growth of nationalism resulted in Indians moving twoards Swadeshi and boycotting foreign cloth. Industrialists pressurised the government to safeguard their interests. The number of industries in India was increased after the two world wars.
During the wars, the mills and factories in Britain were busy producing leather gods, bags, uniforms etc. for the wars. Imports into India increased. Now, Indian industrialists were left to supply to the Indian markets. New industries were established. Like USA and Japan Britain could not compete with the emerging economics after the two world wars. Indian exports to Britain also fell with the collapse of the British economy. Now the newly established industries in India had to observe for newer domestic and industrial markets and consolidate their position.

Question. Describe the techniques which were adopted by the Manchester industrialists to sell their goods in India. Or 
How did the Indian and British merchants and manufacturers advertise their products in India to promote their sale?
Answer : (i) The Manchester made cloth carried a label with ‘Made in Manchester’ written in bold. This assured the buyers of the quality of the cloth.
(ii) The British manufacturers used images of Indian Gods and Goddesses on the labels. It symbolised the divine approval for the commodity. It also created familiarity with the Indian buyers.
(iii) Manufacturers got calenders printed with the images of Gods and the advertisement of their products advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. The calendars were seen on the walls of hotels, tea shops, households, etc. These are used even by people who could not read.
(iv) Images of historical characters and heroes from the past were also displayed on calendars thus sending the message that the product was as worthy of respect as were these respectable characters.
(v) The Indian manufacturers printed the image of Bharat Mata and a nationalist message on the labels. They also printed ‘Made in India’ on the labels thus appealing to the nationalist sentiments.

Question. Describe the role of early entrepreneurs of India in the development of Industries.
Answer : The history of many business groups goes back to trade with China. From the late eighteenth century, the British in India began exporting opium to China and took tea from China to England. Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments.
Having earned through trade, some of these businessmen had visions of developing industrial enterprises in India. In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in the China trade before he turned to industrial investment, setting up six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s. Tagore’s enterprises sank along with those of others in the wider business crises of the 1840s, but later in the nineteenth century many of the China traders became successful industrialists. In Bombay, Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata who built huge industrial empires in India, accumulated their initial wealth partly from exports to China, and partly from raw cotton shipments to England. Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman who set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917, also traded with China. So did the father as well as grandfather of the famous industrialist G.D. Birla.

Question. Why did some industrialists in 19th century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
Answer : Some industrialists were reluctant to introduce new machines and preferred hand labour over machines because of the following reasons:
(i) There was no shortage of human labour during nineteenth century Europe. Poor peasants moved to the cities in huge numbers in search of work.
(ii) In many industries such as gas works and breweries the demand for labour was seasonal. So industrialists usually preferred hand labour, employing workers for the season.
(iii) A range of products could be produced only with hand labour. Machines were oriented to produce uniforms, standardised goods for a mass market. But the demand in the market was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes. These things could be produced only manually.
(iv) The upper classes consisted of the aristocrats and bourgeoises preferred things produced by hand.
(v) Hand-made products came to symbolise refinement and class. They were better finished and carefully designed.
(vi) Maintaining modern industries was an expensive affair. The wear and tear of machines was costly. They were not as effective as they were declared by their inventors and manufacturers.
Hence, industrialists were cautious about using them.

Question. What was the condition of the workers in the industrial cities? How did the lives of the workers improve/ change after 1840s?
Answer : Workers migrated to the cities in search of new jobs.
(i) Jobs depend upon the network of friends and relatives.
(ii) Those without social connections had to wait for the jobs for weeks.
(iii) Workers had to stay in night refuges or casual wards maintained by the poor law authorities.
(iv) As the busy season over, the poor were on the streets again, looking for the odd jobs.
After 1840s the lives of the workers improved as:
(i) R oads were widened.
(ii) New railway stations and railway lines were extended.
(iii) Tunnels dug
(iv) Drainage and sewers laid
(v) Rivers embanked.

Question. ‘Industrialization gave birth to ‘Imperialism’. Justify the statement with three arguments.
Answer : ‘Industrialization gave birth to Imperialism’:
(i) Imperialism was the ill-begotten child of industrialization.
(ii) Other things beside, industrialization chiefly needed two things. One of them being the constant
supply of raw-materials and the other is that the finished goods be sold at the same speed.
(iii) The industrialized countries had introduced heavy import duties as protective tariffs to check the import from other countries.
(iv) Faced with the problem of finding new markets for their products, the producer nations chose such countries where industrialization had not yet reached.
(v) Hence, a race for bringing those areas under their effective occupation or effective influence started among the various industrialized nations.
(vi) As a consequence, Britain, France, Germany, Japan, etc. set up their colonies in Asia, Africa, South America, etc. These colonies served their two purpose of being the suppliers of cheap raw materials and any market for their finished goods.
(vii) Hence, a race of bringing those areas under their effective occupation or effective influence started among the various industrialized nations.

Question. “The typical worker in the mid-19th century was not a machine operator but the traditional craftsperson and labourer.” Support the statement with examples. 
Answer : (i) Technological changes occurred slowly.
(ii) Machines broke down and repairs were costly.
(iii) Machines were not as effective as inventors and manufacturers claimed them to be.
(iv) There was no buyers for machines.
(v) Technology was slow to be accepted by the industrialists.
(vi) Demand in market was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes.
(vii) Aristocrats and bourgeoisie preferred things produced by hands.
(viii) These were better finished and carefully designed.

Question. Explain with examples the importance of advertisement in the marketing of the goods.
Answer : (i) Advertisements play a very vital role in the marketing of any product. One way in which new consumers are created is through advertisements.
(ii) Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary.
(iii) They try to shape the minds of the people and create new needs.
(iv) Today, we live in a world where advertisements surround us. They appear in the newspapers, magazines, hoardings street wall, and television screens.
(v) From the very beginning of the industrial age; advertisements have played a part in expanding the markets for products and in shaping a new consumer culture.

Question. Describe any three major problems faced by Indian cotton weavers in nineteenth century.
Answer : Indian cotton weavers faced the following problems in nineteenth century:
(i) Their export market collapsed and the local market shrank, being glutted with Manchester imports.
Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
(ii) By the 1860s, they could not get the sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality. When the American Civil War broke out and cotton supplies from the US were cut off, Britain turned to India.
As raw cotton export from India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this situation weaving could not pay.
(iii) By the end of the nineteenth century, weavers and other craftsmen faced yet another problem.
Factories in India began to production, flooding the market with machine goods.

Question. How did the British establish a monopoly in cotton and silk trade? OR 
How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers? 
Answer : On getting the political power, the East India Company established a monopoly right to trade and developed a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. The Company took several measures in this connection:
(i) To eliminate the traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, the Company established a direct control over the weavers. It appointed paid servants called the gomasthas to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
(ii) It prevented the Company weavers from dealing with other buyers. The Company introduced the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those who took loans, had no choice but to hand over the cloth to the gomastha. This prevented the weavers from going to any other trader. They were bound to weave only for the Company.
(iii) The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers. The price they received from the Company was low, and the loans they had accepted tied them to the Company.
All the above facts made it easy for the East India Company to procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers.

Picture Based Question 

Question. Study the given picture carefully and answer the question.

Which of the following options best signifies this picture?
(a) He is Rabindranath Tagore.
(b) He is Dwarkanath Tagore.
(c) Dwarkanath Tagore believed that India would develop through westernisation and industrialisation.
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Answer : (d) Both (b) and (c)

Case Based Questions

Question. Read the source given below and answer the questions by choosing the most appropriate option.

The fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introduction of new technology.When the Spinning Jenny was introduced in the woollen industry, women who survived on hand spinning began attacking the new machines. This conflict over the introduction of the jenny continued for a long time. After the 1840s, building activity intensified in the cities, opening up greater opportunities of employment. Roads were widened, new railway stations came up, railway lines were extended, tunnels dug, drainage and sewers laid, rivers embanked. The number of workers employed in the transport industry doubled in the 1840s, and doubled again in the subsequent 30 years.

(i) The introduction of which new technology in England angered women?
(a) The Steam Engine
(b) The Spinning Jenny
(c) The underground railway
(d) None of these
Answer : (b) The Spinning Jenny

(ii) What was Spinning Jenny?
(a) A yarn
(b) An industry
(c) A person
(d) A machine
Answer : (d) A machine

(iii) Why did the women working in the woollen textile industry start attacking the Spinning Jenny?
(a) Because they could not operate it.
(b) Because they were scared of it.
(c) Because Spining Jenny caused them unemployment.
(d) It could not produce finer yarn.
Answer : (c) Because Spining Jenny caused them unemployment.

(iv) In the transport industry the number of workers doubled in the _____, and doubled again in the subsequent _____ years.
(a) 1940s; 30
(b) 1840s; 30
(c) 1830s; 40
(d) 1850s; 30
Answer : (b) 1840s; 30

Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 4 The Age of

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