Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources
Please refer to below Exam Question for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources. These questions and answers have been prepared by expert Class 10 Social Science teachers based on the latest NCERT Book for Class 10 Social Science and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. We have provided Class 10 Social Science exam questions for all chapters in your textbooks. You will be able to easily learn problems and solutions which are expected to come in the upcoming class tests and exams for standard 10th.
Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Social Science Exam Question
All questions and answers provided below for Exam Question Class 10 Social Science Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources are very important and should be revised daily.
Exam Question Class 10 Social Science Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources
Objective Type Questions
Question. The full form of CNG is
(a) Compound Natural Gas
(b) Complex Natural Gas
(c) Compound New Gas
(d) Compressed Natural Gas
Answer : (d) Compressed Natural Gas
Question. Where is the largest wind farm cluster located in India?
(a) Tamil Nadu
(c) Andhra Pradesh
Answer : (a) Tamil Nadu
Question. In which rocks is limestone found?
(d) None of these
Answer : (c) Sedimentary
Question. Low quality brown coal is known as
Answer : (a) lignite
Question. Which one of the following is the softest mineral?
Answer : (a) Talc
Question. Which is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development?
(d) Iron ore
Answer : (d) Iron ore
Question. Where are minerals usually found?
(a) On rocks
(b) On earth crust
(c) On ores
(d) On earth core
Answer : (c) On ores
Question. Ferrous minerals account for about ______________ of the total value of the production of metallic minerals.
Answer : (b) three-fourth
Question. Namrup : Thermal power plant, Narora: Nuclear power plant,____________: Wind power plant
(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) Rawat Bhata
Answer : (a) Tamil Nadu
Question. Ferrous mineral: Iron ore, Non-ferrous mineral: Copper, __________: Platinum
(a) Non-metallic mineral
(b) Energy resource
(c) Precious mineral
Answer : (c) Precious mineral
Question. Which of the following is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace?
(c) Potash salt
(d) Sodium salt
Answer : (b) Limestone
Question. When mining is done by family members in the form of a long narrow tunnel it is known as
(a) narrow tunnel mining
(b) rat-hole mining
(c) snake mining
(d) killer mining
Answer : (b) rat-hole mining
Question. Which of the following minerals is formed by decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered materials?
Answer : (a) Bauxite
Question. Koderma in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?
(a) Iron ore
(d) None of these
Answer : (c) Mica
Question. Toothbrush and toothpaste are made of ______________ .
Answer : Petroleum
Question. Ocean tides can be used to generate _______________ .
Answer : electricity
Question. ______________ are an indispensable a part of human lives.
Answer : Minerals
Question. The mineral ore from which aluminium mainly obtained is copper.
Answer : False
Question. Identify the metallic mineral with the help of the following features.
• Formed due to decomposition of wide variety or rocks rich in aluminium silicates.
• Combines the strength of metals such as iron with good conductivity and great malleability.
• Contributes about one-third of the total production of India.
Answer : Bauxite
Question. Identify the non-metallic mineral with the help of the following features.
• A most indispensable mineral used in electric and electronic industry
• Made up of a series of plates or leaves
• It can be clear, black, green, red, yellow or brown.
Answer : Mica
Question. Identify the following with the help of the following features.
• From tiny pins to big ships, all are made from them.
• Most of the means of transport are manufactured from them.
• An indispensable part of human lives.
Answer : Minerals
Question. Match the following
(i) Nuclear energy (a) Gulf of Khambat
(ii) Wind energy (b) Puga valley, Ladakh
(iii) Tidal energy (c) Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan
(iv) Geo-thermal energy (d) Nagarcoil, Jaisalmer
Answer : (i)–(c), (ii)–(d), (iii)–(a), (iv)–(b)
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Limestone is the basic raw material for the which industry?
Answer : Cement industry.
Question. What are the uses of energy resources?
Answer : Energy is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries.
Question. For which industries petroleum refineries act as a “nodal industry”?
Answer : Petroleum refineries act as nodal industry for synthetic textile industry, fertilizer and numerous chemical industry.
Question. How is biogas produced?
Answer : Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas. Decomposition of organic matter yields gas.
Question. What is the importance of aluminium?
Answer : Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability.
Question. Why are there a wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density found in minerals?
Answer : Because a particular mineral that will be formed from a certain combination of elements depends upon the physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms.
Question. What properties are used by the geologists to classify the minerals?
Answer : Geologists use colours, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density that a particular mineral possesses to classify the minerals.
Question. What are the uses of mica? Which is the leading mica producing state of India?
Answer : Due to its excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, mica is one of the most indispensable minerals used in electric and electronic industries. Jharkhand is the leading mica producer.
Question. What are placer deposits?
Answer : Alluvial deposits of valley floors and the base of hills are called placer deposits.
Question. What are ferrous minerals? Give two examples.
Answer : Metallic minerals which contains iron are known as ferrous minerals.
Question. Name some multi-purpose projects which are producing hydroelectric power?
Answer : Multi-purpose projects like the Bhakra Nangal, Damodar Valley Corporation, the Kopili Hydel project, etc. are producing hydro electric power.
Question. What are used to generate nuclear energy?
Answer : Uranium and thorium are used to generate nuclear energy.
Question. What is rat-hole mining?
Answer : It is a coal mining done by individuals or communities in the form of long narrow tunnel in Jowai and Cherapunjee in Meghalaya.
Question. What is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development?
Answer : Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development.
Question. What is a mineral?
Answer : Mineral is a homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.
Question. Where do the minerals occur in sedimentary rock? How are they formed?
Answer : In sedimentary rocks, minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata.
Question. What is the meaning of Kudre in Kannada? How is iron ore transported from Kudremukh mines to a port near Mangaluru?
Answer : Kudre in Kannada means horse. Kudremukh mines are known to be one of the largest mines in the world. The iron ore is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangaluru.
Question. What is the use of limestone?
Answer : Limestone is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.
Question. How can energy be generated?
Answer : Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and from electricity.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. What are the constant threats to miners?
Answer : (i) The dust and noxious fumes inhaled by miners make them vulnerable to pulmonary disease.
(ii) The risk of collapsing mine roofs are a constant threat to miners.
(iii) The risk of inundation and fires in coalmines area are constant threat to miners.
Question. What are the importance of firewood and cattle dung for rural India? Why it is discouraged?
Answer : (i) Firewood and cattle dung cake are most common in rural India.
(ii) Around 70 per cent energy requirement in rural household are met by firewood and cattle dung cake.
(iii) Their use are becoming difficult due to decreasing forest area, using dung cake too is being discouraged because it consumes most valuable manure which could be used in agriculture.
Question. “Natural gas is considered an environment-friendly fuel.” Explain the statement in two points.
Answer : Natural gas is used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material.
(i) It can be transported easily through pipelines.
(ii) Pipelines have helped in setting up fertilizer plants and power plants on its way.
(iii) Natural gas is a clean source of energy.
(iv) It is an environment-friendly fuel because of the low carbon emission.
Question. What are the needs of encouraging non-conventional sources of energy?
Answer : (i) The growing consumption of energy has resulted in the country becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and gas.
(ii) Rising prices of petroleum and natural gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainities about the security of energy supply in future, which in turn has serious repercussions on the growth of the national economy.
(iii) Increasing use of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental problems. Hence there is a pressing need to use renewable energy sources.
Question. Why is mica considered the most important mineral in electric and electronic industries? Give three reasons.
Answer : (i) Mica is excellent di-electric in strength and has low powerless factor.
(ii) It has insulating properties and resistance to high voltage.
(iii) It is most indispensable mineral used in electric and electronic industries.
Question. What is the importance of HVJ gas pipeline?
Answer : (i) The 1700 km long Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur cross country gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassien with fertilizer, power and industrial complexes in western and northern India.
(ii) This artery has provided an impetus to India’s gas production.
(iii) The power and fertilizers industry are the key uses of natural gas.
Question. When does mineral deposit or reserve turn into mine?
Answer : (i) The concentration of minerals in the ore, the ease of extraction and closeness to the market play an important role in affecting the economic viability of a reserve.
(ii) To meet the demand, a choice has to be made between a number of possible options. When this is done a mineral deposit or reserve turns into a mine.
Question. Describe the distribution of coal in India.
Answer : (i) In India coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages:
(a) Gondwana a little over 200 million years in age and
(b) Tertiary deposits which are only about 55 million years old.
(ii) The major reserves of Gondwana coal are metallurgical coal. They are located in Damodar valley, Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro are important coal fields. The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits.
(iii) Tertiary coals occur in the north eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
Question. Where are the petroleum reserves found in India?
Answer : (i) Most of the petroleum occurences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age.
(ii) It occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the upfold. The oil bearing layer is a porous limestone or sand stone. It is prevented by intervening non-porous layers.
(iii) Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.
Question. Explain the importance of iron ore for industrial development of the country.
Answer : (i) Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development.
(ii) India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of iron ore.
(iii) India is rich in good quality iron ores like magnetite and hematite.
Question. What are the factors which decide the extraction of minerals?
Answer : (i) The mineral content of the ore must be in sufficient concentration to make its extraction commercially viable.
(ii) The type of formation or structure in which they are found determines the relative ease with which mineral ores may be mined.
(iii) This also determines the cost of extraction.
Question. Describe any three characteristics of Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur iron ore belt in India.
Answer : Characteristics of Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur iron ore belt in India:
(i) The region lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.
(ii) Very high grade hematite ores are found in the famous Bailadila ranges of hills in the Bastar district.
(iii) The range of hills comprises of 14 deposits of super high grade hematite iron ore.
(iv) It has the best physical properties needed for steel making.
(v) Iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakhapatnam port.
Question. What factors decide the properties of minerals?
Answer : (i) A particular mineral that will be formed from a certain combination of elements depends upon the physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms.
(ii) This results in a wide range of colour, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density that a particular mineral possess.
(iii) Geologists use these properties to classify the minerals.
Question. Why is it essential to use renewable sources of energy?
Answer : (i) Non-renewable sources are going to exhaust such as coal, petrol, natural gas, etc. They can cause environmental pollution, therefore, we have to use renewable resources.
(ii) India has abundance of solar energy, wind, water, and biomass.
(iii) Rising prices of oil and gas and their shortage have raised uncertainties about energy resources in the future.
Question. How are electricity generated?
Answer : Electricity is generated mainly in two ways.
(i) Hydro-electricity is generated by running water which drives hydro turbines to generate electricity.
(ii) Thermal electricity is generated by burning fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines to produce thermal power.
Question. “India has great potential of wind power.” Justify the statement.
Answer : India has great potential of wind power. It can be justified in following points.
(i) The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai.
(ii) Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have important wind farms.
(iii) Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are well known for effective use of wind energy in the country.
Question. How is geo-thermal energy produced? Explain.
Answer : The earth grows progressively hotter with increasing depth. Where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperatures are found at shallow depths. Groundwater in such areas absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot.
It is so hot that when it rises to the earth’s surface, it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity.
Question. Differentiate between the study of minerals by geographers and geologists.
Answer : (i) Geographers study minerals as part of the earth’s crust for a better understanding of landforms.
(ii) The distribution of mineral resources and associated economic activities are of interest to geographers.
(iv) A geologist, however, is interested in the formation of minerals, their age and physical and chemical composition.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. Highlight the importance of petroleum. Explain the occurrence of petroleum in India.
Answer : Importance of Petroleum:
(i) Petroleum is the major energy source in India.
(ii) Provides fuel for heat and lighting.
(iii) Provides lubricant for machinery.
(iv) Provides raw material for a number of manufacturing industries.
(v) Petroleum refineries act as nodal industry for synthetic, textile, fertilizer and chemical industries.
(i) Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps.
(ii) In regions of folding, anticline or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the upfold.
(iii) Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.
Question. Give a detail account of geothermal energy?
Answer : (i) Geothermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth.
(ii) It exists because the earth grows progressively hotter with increasing depth.
(iii) Where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperatures are found at shallow depth. Ground water in such areas absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot.
(iv) It is so hot that when it rises to the earth’s surface, it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity.
(v) Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy. One is located in the Parvati valley near Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga valley, Ladakh.
Question. Give a detailed account of bauxite including its distribution and production.
Answer : (i) Several ores contain aluminium, it is from bauxite, a clay like substance that alumina and later aluminium is obtained.
(ii) Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminium silicates.
(iii) Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability.
(iv) India’s bauxite deposits are mainly found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni.
(v) Odisha was the largest bauxite producing state in India with 34.97% of the country’s total production in 2009-10.
Question. What are the impacts of mining on the health of the miners and the environment?
How is mining activity hazardous? Explain.
How is the mining activity injurious to the health of the miners and environment? Explain.
Discuss the hazards of mining on the life of miners and on the environment.
Answer : (i) The dust and noxious fumes inhaled by miners make them vulnerable to plumonary disease.
(ii) The risk of collapsing mine roofs, inundation and fires in coalmines are a constant threat to miners.
(iii) The water sources in the region get contaminated due to mining.
(iv) Dumping of waste and slurry leads to degradation of land and soil resources.
(v) Dumping of waste in water sources leads to increase in stream and river pollution.
Question. Why is the conservation of energy resources essential?
Answer : (i) Energy is a basic requirement for economic development.
(ii) Every sector of the national economy – agriculture, industry transport, commercial and domestic needs inputs of energy.
(iii) The economic development plans implemented since Independence necessarily required increasing amounts of energy to remain operational.
(iv) As a result, consumption of energy in all forms has been steadily rising all over the country.
(v) There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development.
Question. Bring out the differences between thermal power and hydel power projects.
Answer : The differences between thermal power and hydel power projects are given below:
Question. Explain the importance of biogas plant or gobar gas plant for the rural India.
How can biogas solve the energy problem mainly in rural India? Give your suggestions.
Answer : Biogas to solve energy problem basically in rural area:
(i) It is a renewable source of energy.
(ii) It is eco-friendly.
(iii) It reduces the burden on conventional sources of energy.
(iv) Biogas or gobar gas has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, cow dung cake and firewood.
(v) These provide twin benefits to the farmer in the form of energy and improved quality of manure.
(vi) It improves the quality of manure and also presents the loss of trees and manure due to burning of fuel wood and cow dung cakes.
Question. Discuss the different mode of occurrence of minerals with examples.
Answer : Minerals generally occur in these forms.
(i) Minerals may occur in cracks, crevices, faults or joints in igneous and metamorphic rocks. The smaller occurences are called veins and the larger are called lodes. Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead, etc. are obtained from veins and lodes.
(ii) In sedimentary rocks minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been formed by deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. Coal and some form of iron ore, gypsum, potash, salt and sodium salt are examples.
(iii) Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rocks, and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. Bauxite is formed this way.
(iv) Alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills are called ‘placer deposits’ and generally contain minerals which are not corroded by water. Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most important among such minerals.
(v) The Ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals, common salt. Magnesium and bromine are largely derived from ocean waters. The ocean beds are also rich in manganese nodules.
Question. Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?
Why is conservation of minerals important? How can we conserve minerals?
“Conservation of minerals is the need of the hour.” Support the statement with five facts.
What efforts are required to use mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner? Explain in three points.
Why is necessary to conserve mineral resources? Explain any four ways to conserve mineral resources.
What steps should be taken to conserve mineral resources?
Answer : Needs for conservation of mineral resources are as follows:
(i) The total volume of workable mineral deposits is an insignificant fraction i.e. one per cent of the earth’s crust.
(ii) We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that required millions of years to be created and concentrated.
(iii) The geological processes of mineral formation are so slow that the rates of replenishment are infinitely small in comparison to the present rates of consumption.
(iv) Mineral resources are finite and non renewable.
(v) Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs as mineral extraction comes from greater depths along with decrease in quality.
Conservation of minerals:
(i) A concentrated effort has to be made in order to use our mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner.
(ii) Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved to allow use of low grade ores at low costs.
(iii) Recyling of metals is also essential.
(iv) Using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps in conserving our mineral resources for the future.
Case Based Questions
Question. Read the source given below and answer the questions by choosing the most appropriate option.
Though, several ores contain aluminium, it is from bauxite, a clay-like substance that alumina and later aluminium is obtained. Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminium silicates. Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability. India’s bauxite deposits are mainly found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni. Odisha was the largest bauxite producing state in India in 2016-17. Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district are the most important bauxite deposits in the state.
(i) Bauxite deposits in India are mainly found in _______ hills, and the plateau regions of Bilaspur-Katni and ________.
(a) Mahadeo; Deccan
(b) Nilgiri; Malwa
(c) Garo; Chotanagpur
(d) Maikal; Amarkantak
Answer : (d) Maikal; Amarkantak
(ii) Bauxite is most commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions. Identify which state the following bauxite deposits belong to:
Choose the correct option–
(a) a –2, b –3, c –1, d –4
(b) a –4, b –1, c –2, d –3
(c) a –3, b –1, c –4, d –2
(d) a –1, b –4, c –4, d –2
Answer : (c) a –3, b –1, c –4, d –2
(iii) Which state of India is the largest producer of bauxite?
Answer : Odisha
(iv) Name the metal obtained from bauxite.
Answer : Aluminium