Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Secondary Activities

Please refer to below Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Secondary Activities. These questions and answers have been prepared by expert Class 12 Geography teachers based on the latest NCERT Book for Class 12 Geography and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. We have provided Class 12 Geography exam questions for all chapters in your textbooks. You will be able to easily learn problems and solutions which are expected to come in the upcoming class tests and exams for standard 10th.

Chapter 6 Secondary Activities Class 12 Geography Exam Question

All questions and answers provided below for Exam Question Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Secondary Activities are very important and should be revised daily.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. In what way secondary activities add value to natural resources? Give three examples.
Answer. Secondary activities add value to the natural resources by transforming raw materials into valuable products. For example,
(i) Cotton in the boll has limited use, but after transforming into yarn, it becomes more valuable and can be used for making clothes.
(ii) Iron-ore cannot be used directly from the mines but after being converted into steel, it can be used for making many valuable machines, tools, etc.
(iii) Materials from the farms, forest products and resources of the sea can be put into greater use by secondary activities.

Question. What are the basis on which industries are classified? Give examples.
Answer. Industries are classified on various basis which are
– On the Basis of Size On this basis, industries are classified as cottage or household industries, small scale industries and large scale industries. The size is determined by capital, number of workers and volume of production.
– On the Basis of Inputs/Raw Materials On this basis, industries are agro based industries, chemicals based industries, mineral based industries, etc. The nature of input determines their operations.
– Industries Based on Output/Product On this basis, industries are classified as basic industries and consumer goods/non basic industries.
– On the Basis of Ownership On this basis, industries are classified into public sector, private sector and joint sector industries.

Question. Explain how distance is the most important factor in determining the location of industries.
Answer. Distance is the most important factor in determining the location of industries because
– Access to market for the products of industry depends upon the distance between the location of industry and the nearby market.
– Distance between the site of raw material and industry influences the location of industry.
– Heavy industries depend upon power sources. Hence, they are located close to the sources of power.
– Efficient transportation system, which can travel large distances in short time is essential for the development of industries.

Question. What are small scale industries? Why are they important?
Answer. Small scale industries are extended form of cottage industry. But the methods used in small scale industry are different from those of cottage industry. It is characterised by the use of local raw materials, simple power driven machines and semi-skilled labour.Importance of small scale industries is
– Small scale industries contribute to the manufacturing and industrial output of a country.They contribute to the industrial exports and provide a base for the large scale industries.
– They have flexibilities in operations and small market.There is more use of domestic resource in a productive manner.
– This industry raises employment and increases the purchasing capacity of local people. Developing countries like India, China, Brazil etc depend upon the small scale industries to generate employment for their large population.

Question. State the importance of manufacturing industries in the economic development of a country.
Answer. The importance of manufacturing industries in the economic development of a country is
– Manufacturing industries process the raw material into useful goods and products essential for consumption in a country.
– It adds value to a product and improves its quality that is essential for creating diversified products.
– Manufacturing sector creates jobs and provides employment to the people.
– Other industries such as service industry is also dependent upon the manufacturing sector.
– Urbanisation and social development of a region are also supported by the manufacturing sector.

Question. Explain in brief about traditional large scale industrial regions. State any two characteristics of them.
Answer. Traditional large scale industrial regions are associated with the heavy industries like metal smelting, heavy engineering, chemical manufacturing and textile production. They are usually located near coal fields. These industries are also called smokestack industries because they are the most polluting industries.
The two characteristics of these industries are
(i) Large labour force is engaged in production. It is also characterised by crowded and low quality poor houses, environment is unpleasant and full of pollution, waste disposals, etc.
(ii) It is characterised by problems of unemployment and emigration because of closure of factories due to worldwide fall in demands.

Question. Give a brief note on the Ruhr coal field, Germany.
Answer. Ruhr coal field has been one of the most important industrial regions of Europe for a long time. Coal, iron and steel formed the basis of the economy but with the decline
in demand of coal, the industry started shrinking.The Ruhr region is responsible for 80 per cent of Germany’s total steel production. The future success of Ruhr is now based on the newly developed industries like huge Opel car assembly plant, new chemical plants, universities.
Out-of-town shopping centres have appeared resulting in a ‘New Ruhr’ landscape.

Question. State three points about the process of mechanisation in modern large scale manufacturing industry.
Answer. The process of mechanisation in modern large scale manufacturing industries is
(i) Mechanisation refers to using gadgets to accomplish tasks. For example, powerlooms in textile has led to higher production levels.
(ii) The advanced stage of mechanisation is automation that refers to completion of tasks without the aid of humans thinking during the manufacturing process.
(iii) There are automatic factories with feedback and closed loop computer control systems where machines are developed to think. These kinds of mechanised processing units have found all over the world.

 Long Answer Type Questions

Question. Write a short note on cotton textile industry. Also mention its sub sectors in brief
Answer. Cotton textile industry is an agro-based industry which requires a huge amount of cotton as raw material. It is distributed all over the world. It is located in India,China, USA, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Egypt etc which produce more than half of the world’s raw cotton.The UK, North-West European countries and Japan import cotton yarn to produce cotton textile. Europe alone accounts for nearly half of the world’s cotton imports.
But this industry has now shown a declining trend in many countries due to a stiff competition with synthetic fibres. With the scientific advancement and technological improvement the industrial structure is showing a change. For example, from Second World War till the 1970s, Germany was the leading producer of cotton textiles but now it has declined. Cotton
textiles has shifted to less developed countries where labour cost is low as compared to developed countries.
This industry has three sub-sectors
(i) Handloom Sector It is a labour-intensive sector that provides employments to semi-skilled workers.
It needs only a small capital investment. It includes spinning, weaving and finishing of the fabric process.
(ii) Powerloom Sector Powerlooms are less labour-internsive due to introduction of machines which increases the volume production. These sectors are highly capital intensive. They require good quality raw cotton.
(iii) Mill Sector This sector is highly capital intensive and produces fine clothes in bulk.

Question. Examine any five factors that influence the location of Industries in the world. 
Answer. The five factors influencing the industrial location in the world are
(i) Access to Market Market is a place where people,who have demand for goods and the ability to purchase, buy from the sellers, selling their goods at that place. Market affects the location of an industry.A manufacturing unit is established near the market area. Areas having more population are big markets for manufactured goods, as compared to areas having less population. Apart from it, areas having population with more purchasing power from big markets.
(ii) Access to Raw Material Industries that use heavy, bulky and weight-losing raw material are established near the source of raw material. For example, in sugar industries, sugarcane is a perishable and weight-losing raw material. To reduce the transport cost, industries are located near the source of raw material.
(iii) Access to Sources of Energy Industries using more power and energy are established near the source of energy. For example, aluminum industry.
(iv) Access to Transportation and Communication Industries are located in areas that have efficient transport network to get raw material from various regions and supply manufactured goods to market.Communication network is also needed to communicate ideas. Thus, transport and communication are important factors that affect the location of an industry.
(v) Government Policies Favourable government policies that promote industrialisation is also important in deciding the location of an industry.

Question. Write a short note on iron and steel industries and their distribution in the world.
Answer. Iron and steel industry is a basic industry which provides raw material to other industries such as machine tools, used for further production. It is complex and capital intensive in
nature. The distribution of iron and steel industries in the world is
l North America In North America, most of the production of iron and steel comes from North Appalachian Region,Great Lakes region and the Atlantic coast of USA. The important industries centres include Pittsburgh, Chicago,Lorain, Cleveland, Buffalo, Sparrows Point and Morisville.It also extends towards the Southern State of Alabama.
l Europe In Europe, the major producers of Iron and Steel are UK, Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Russia. Important centres are
– UK Scun Thorpe, Port Talbot, Birmingham
– Germany Duisburg, Dortmund, Essen
– France Le Creusot, St. Ettinne
– Russia St. Petersburgh, Moscow
– Ukraine Krivoi Rog, Donetsk
l Asia The major producers in Asia are Japan, China, India.The important centres are
– Japan Nagasaki, Yokohama
– China Shanghai, Wuhan
– India Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Rourkela, Bhilai, Bokaro, etc.

Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Secondary Activities

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