Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Transport and Communication

Please refer to below Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Transport and Communication. These questions and answers have been prepared by expert Class 12 Geography teachers based on the latest NCERT Book for Class 12 Geography and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. We have provided Class 12 Geography exam questions for all chapters in your textbooks. You will be able to easily learn problems and solutions which are expected to come in the upcoming class tests and exams for standard 10th.

Chapter 10 Transport and Communication Class 12 Geography Exam Question

All questions and answers provided below for Exam Question Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Transport and Communication

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. What are the steps taken by Indian Railways to improve its performance?
Answer. The steps taken by Indian Railways after Independence to improve its performance are
– To convert the metre and narrow gauge into broad gauge.
– Replacement of steam engine and diesel engine into electric engine which may also help in keeping the environment clean and reduce the operational cost.
– Introduction of Metro rails in Metropolitan towns to provide good means for urban transit system. e.g. Kolkata Metro, operated by Indian Railways.

Question. Which are the two types of roads included under the category of ‘other roads’ in India?Write any two features of each. 
Answer. Border Roads and International Highways are included under the category of ‘other roads’ in India.Border Roads are strategically important roads along the Northern and North- Eastern boundary of the country.
Features of border roads are
(i) The total length of border roads is 46,870 km, these are constructed by Border Road Organisation (BRO).
(ii) These roads are important to accelerate economic development and strengthening defence preparedness.International Highways are the roads which connect India to neighbouring countries.
Feature of International Highways are
(i) They aim to promote harmonious relationship with neighbouring countries.
(ii) They provide an effective connectivity to neighbouring countries.

Question. Which is the most effective and advanced personal communication system in India? Explain any four characteristics of it. 
Answer. The most effective and advanced personal communication system in India is internet. The characteristics of internet are
(i) With the help of internet, users can directly communicate through e-mail and can get access to the world of knowledge and information.
(ii) Use of internet is increasing for e-commerce and carrying out money transactions.
(iii) The internet is like a huge central warehouse of data, with detailed information on various items.
(iv) It enables us with the basic facilities of direct communication. This mode of communication is efficient and cost effective.

Question. The distribution of roads in India is not uniform.Examine the statement by giving three reasons.
Answer. The distribution of roads in India is not uniform due to the following reasons
– Roads can be easily constructed at a low cost in plain areas, whereas it is difficult and costly in hilly, mountainous and plateau areas. Therefore, most of the Northern states and Southern states have dense network of roads as compared to Himalayan and North-Eastern states.
– Level of economic development plays an important role in deciding the network of roads in an area. Therefore, areas having low economic development like, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh have less dense network of roads.
– Inaccessible areas also have less density of roads in India,e.g. forested, rainy and high altitude areas have less density of roads.

Question. Describe any three characteristics of State Highways of India.
Answer. Three characteristics of State Highways of India are
– These are the highways which are constructed and maintained by the State Governments. They constitute about 4% of total roads in the country.
– They are meant to connect the state capitals with district headquarters and other important towns.
– These roads are further connected to National Highways, so they can connect these areas to other states.

Question. Define different gauges of Indian railways.
Or What are the three categories of the track of Indian railways? Write any one feature of each.
Or What are the three categories of Indian railways on the basis of width of track? Write main feature of each category. 
Answer. The different railway gauges on the basis of the width of the track of Indian Railways are
(i) Broad Gauge In broad guage, the distance between rails is 1.676 metre. The total length of broad gauge lines was 60,510 km in March 2016.
(ii) Metre Gauge In metre gauge, the distance between the rails in 1 metre. The total length of metre gauge was 3,880 km in March, 2016.
(iii) Narrow Gauge In narrow gauge, the distance between the rails is 0.762 metre or 0.610 metre. The total length of narrow gauge line is 2,297 km in March 2016, This category of railway lines was mostly found in the hilly area.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question. Which is the apex body in India to improve the quality of National Highways? Examine the significance of National Highways.
Answer. The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is apex body in India responsible for building, upgrading and maintaining most of the National Highways network. It operates under the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.
The significance of National Highways is
– National Highways form the lifeline of road transport system in India as they constitute 2% of the road length but carry 40% of traffic in India.
– These roads are meant for inter-state transport and strategic defence movement.
– These also connect the state capitals, major cities,important ports, railway junctions, etc.
– These roads are lifeline of the country. Goods and passengers are transported from one place to another in a short period of time.
– They connect remote areas with developed areas.
– Manufactured product and raw material is transported through it in very efficient manner.

Question. ‘‘Indian Railways brought people of diverse cultures together.’’ Support this statement with suitable examples.
Answer. Indian Railways brought people of diverse cultures together in the following ways
– As India is a land of diverse cultures, railways connects people of different regions through its services. For example, people from the Northern regions can travel to Southern regions people from the Eastern regions can travel to Western regions.
– People from different languages with different customs and cultures connect with each other using the services of Indian railways. For example, migrant labour travels from the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar to Delhi,Maharashtra. Students travel to various parts and meet people of other cultures having different traditions.
– Railways was the main means of transport that brought people of diverse cultures together during the freedom struggle.
– Each state of India has a distinct culture and customs.When people travel from one state to another, they mostly use railways as a means of transport and thus mix with different people having different cultural background.
– People also come in contact with foreigners who belong to other countries, having varying colours of different customs and practices and share their culture and customs with each other.Thus, railways help in bringing people of different cultures together.

Question. Define the term road density. Explain with examples the two main determinants of road density in India.
Or Explain with examples the two main determinants of road density in India. 
Answer. Road density is defined as the length of roads per 100 sq km of surface area. It is a method to compare road network of an area to another area.
The two determinants of road density in India are
(i) Level of Economic Development The density of roads is directly proportional to the level of economic development in a region. In Northern plains, the density of roads is high mainly due to development of agricultural sector and urbanisation. States of Haryana,Punjab and UP have high density of roads.Industrialisation also decides the density of roads. In the industrialised area, there is high density due development activities. In the backward areas the level of economic development is low thus the density of roads is also law.
(ii) Nature of Terrain It directly affects road density.Plains are most suitable for construction of road infrastructure whereas mountains, hills and forested areas are not suitable for construction of roads.Gangetic plains have high density of roads whereas Himalayan states like Uttarakhand and North-Eastern states have low density of roads. Plateau regions have
less dense roads. For example Chotanagpur plateau region, central highlands region.

Question. How are Indian railways contributing to the growth of national economy? Explain with examples.
Or ‘‘Indian Railways network is one of the longest networks in the world and has contributed a lot to the growth of the economy.’’ Support the statement.
Answer. Indian railways is one of the longest networks in the world and it has contributed to the growth of national economy in following ways
– Indian Railways form the lifeline of India catering to its needs for large scale movement of traffic, both freight and passenger, thereby contributing to economic growth.
– Railways has also helped in promoting national integration. It connects areas having important mineral resources to regions where there are industries.
– It also helps in transporting raw materials and finished products.
– Apart from the passengers and traffic, the freight also increased tremendously. Development in industrial and agricultural sectors has generated high demand for railway transport.
– Major commodities transported by railways include coal, iron and steel ores, petroleum products and essential commodities such as foodgrains, fertilizers, cement, sugar, salt, edible oils, etc.
– Indian railways also contribute in tourism sector by connecting hill stations, religious places and other important tourist places.
– It is the largest government undertaking which provides employment to millions of people in India.

Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Transport and Communication

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