Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources

Please refer to below Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources. These questions and answers have been prepared by expert Class 12 Geography teachers based on the latest NCERT Book for Class 12 Geography and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. We have provided Class 12 Geography exam questions for all chapters in your textbooks. You will be able to easily learn problems and solutions which are expected to come in the upcoming class tests and exams for standard 10th.

Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources Class 12 Geography Exam Question

All questions and answers provided below for Exam Question Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. Give an account of production and use of coal in India.
Answer. About 80% of coal found in India is bituminous coal of non-coking grade. In India, coal is found in two rock sequences
(i) Gondwana Fields It is mainly found in river valleys of Damodar, Godavari, Mahanadi, Sone, etc. The important coal mines are Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro, Korba, Singareni, etc.
(ii) Tertiary Coal Fields It is found in Western and Eastern region of Himalayas. Meghalaya, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh are important states where tertiary coal is produced.
Uses of coal are
– It is mainly used for generation of thermal power.
– It is also used in smelting of iron ore.

Question. Describe the mineral belts of India.
Answer. The minerals belts of India are
– The North-Eastern Plateau Region This belt includes the regions of Chhotanagpur (Jharkhand),Odisha plateau, West Bengal and parts of Chhattisgarh. Important minerals here are iron ore,coal, manganese, bauxite and mica.
– The South-Western Plateau Region This belt includes Karnataka, Goa and contiguous uplands of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Ferrous metals and bauxite are concentrated here along with high grade iron ore, manganese and limestone. Neyveli has lignite coal deposits. Deposits of Monazite sand and thorium are found in Kerala. Mines of iron-ore are located in Goa.
– The North-Western Region Minerals of this belt are associated with Dharwar rock system found in the Aravali ranges of Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat. Major minerals found in this region are copper and zinc. Rajasthan is rich in building stones i.e. sandstone, granite, marble, fuller’s earth and gypsum.

Question. Give two advantages of manganese. Mention four manganese producing states of India.
Answer. The two advantages of manganese are
(i) It can be easily used as a raw material due to its properties.
(ii) It is found abundantly in almost all geological formations.
Four manganese producing states of India are
(i) Odisha It is the leading manganese producer in India.Important mines are located in the districts of Bonai,Kendujhar, Sundergarh, Gangpur, Koraput, Kalahandi and Bolangir.
(ii) Karnataka Important mines are located in Dharwar,Bellary, Belgaum, North Canara, Chikmagalur, Shivamogga, Chitradurg and Tumkuru districts.
(iii) Maharashtra Manganese mines are found in Bhandara,Nagpur and Ratnagiri districts.
(iv) Madhya Pradesh Mines are located in a belt that extends through Balaghat, Chhindwara, Nimar-Mandla and Jhabua districts.

Question. Why is it necessary to develop bio-energy in India? Or Explain the significance of bio-energy to human kind in India. 
Answer. Bio-energy refers to energy derived from biological product which includes agricultural residues, municipal, industrial and other wastes. It is necessary to develop bio-energy in India because
– It is a potential source of energy conversion and can be converted into electrical energy, heat energy or gas for cooking food.
– It can solve the problem of garbage and waste in urban areas as energy can be derived from wastes.
– It can contribute to improving economic life of rural people in developing countries.
– It will enhance self-reliance and can reduce pressure on fuel wood and reduce oil imports.

Question. ‘Bauxite is found in many parts of India.’ Discuss the statement by explaining the area of Bauxite distribution.
Answer. Bauxite ore is found in laterite rocks mostly in the plateau or hilly regions of peninsular India and also in the coastal areas.
The distribution of bauxite in India is
– Odisha is the largest producer of Bauxite and important producing areas are Kalahandi, Sambhalpur, Bolangir and Koraput.
– The Patlands of Lohardaga in Jharkhand have rich deposits. Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are the other important producers of Bauxite.
– Bhavnagar and Jamnagar in Gujarat have the major deposits. Chhattisgarh has bauxite deposits in Amarkantak plateau while Katni-Jabalpur area and Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh have important deposits of bauxite.
– Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Goa are minor producer of bauxite.

Question. Give two advantages of ‘copper’. Mention four copper mining areas of India. 
Answer. The advantages of copper are
(i) Copper, due to its alloyable, malleable and ductile properties, is mostly use in electrical industry for making wires, electric motors, transformers and generators.
(ii) To give strength to jewelleries, copper is also mixed with gold.
Four copper producing regions of India are
(i) Copper deposits are mainly found in Singhbhum district in Jharkhand.
(ii) It is found in Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh.
(iii) Alwar, Jhunjhunu, Bhilwara, and Udaipur districts of Rajasthan are producers of copper.
(iv) Agnigundala in Guntar district of Andhra Pradesh.Chitradurg and Hassan districts of Karnataka and South Arcot district of Tamil Nadu are other producers of copper ore.

Question. Explain any three methods of conservation of minerals resources in India. 
Answer. The methods of conservation of mineral resources in India are
(i) Adoption of renewable resources in place of exhaustible resources, like solar power, wind, wave, geothermal energy can save our non-renewable resources.
(ii) Use of recycled scrap metals should be encouraged.It can save the mining of newer metals. In India, scope of recycling scarce metallic minerals like zinc, copper, lead is more because India lacks behind in the availability of these minerals.
(iii) Substitutes for some precious and scarce metals should be encouraged. It can reduce their

Long Answer Type Questions

Question. Write a detailed note on the petroleum resources of India. 
Answer. All petroleum products are obtained from crude oil.Crude oil is found in sedimentary rocks of tertiary age. In India, Digboi was the only crude oil producing region before Independence.
In 1956, after foundation of Oil and Natural Gas Commission, excavation of oil resources started at a faster pace. In recent years, new oil deposits have been found at the extreme Western and Eastern parts of the country.The distribution of crude oil or petroleum resources in India is
– North-Eastern Region It is the oldest oil producing region of India. It extends over vast area in upper Assam valley and Arunachal Pradesh. Important oil fields are Digboi, Naharkatiya, Moran, Rudrasagar, etc.
– Gujarat Region The major oil fields of this region are Ankleshwar, Kalol, Nawagam, etc.
– MumbaiHigh It is an oil bearing region about 160 km North-West off the Mumbai coast in the Arabian sea.
– East-Coastal Region This region extends over the Krishna, Godavari and Kaveri basin.
– Western Region Ankleshwar, Kalol,Mehsana, Nawagam etc are important oil producing regions in Gujarat.

Question. Which are the two main ferrous minerals found in India? Describe four characteristics of each.
Answer. The two main ferrous minerals found in India are iron ore and manganese. These two minerals provide strong base for development of industries in India.
Characteristics of iron-ore in India are
(i) India has largest iron ore reserves in Asia.
(ii) India produces superior quality of haematite and magnetite iron ore which have a great demand in international market.
(iii) Iron ore mines of India are found near the coal fields which is an advantage to iron ore industries of India.
(iv) Indian states like Odisha, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Maharashtra have about 95% of total iron ore reserves in India.
Characteristics of manganese in India are:
(i) It is an important raw material which is used in iron and steel industries for smelting of iron-ore.
(ii) Manganese in India is mainly associated with Dharwar rock system.
(iii) Odisha is the leading manganese producer of India.
(iv) Karnataka, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh are other important producer states of manganese.

Question. Explain any three features of the solar energy, tidal energy and geothermal energy resources.
Answer. Solar energy, tidal energy and geothermal energy are renewable energy sources. Important features of these resources are
Features of Solar Energy
(i) It is the most readily available source of energy. It can be trapped by two methods i.e. photovoltaic cells and solar thermal technology.
(ii) It is environment friendly and easy to construct.
(iii) It is generally used in appliances like heaters, crop dryers, cookers, etc.
Features of Tidal Energy
(i) It refers to energy generated by tapping infinite energy present in ocean currents.
(ii) Tides are more predictable than the wind and the solar energy. Thus, energy from this can be harnessed more than the other renewable energy sources.
(iii) India has a long coastline thus has a great potential for the development of tidal energy.
Features of Geothermal Energy
(i) It refers to energy generated by the magma, hot springs, hot geysers, etc that comes over the earth’s surface. The heat energy from these sources can be converted into electrical energy by tapping it.
(ii) Geothermal energy is gaining importance and can be used as an alternative to conventional energy sources.
(iii) In Manikaran (Himachal Pradesh), a geothermal energy plant has been commissioned by India.

Question. What is the use of manganese? Describe the statewise distribution of manganese in India.
Answer. The uses of manganese are
– It is used as a raw material in iron and steel industry for smelting of iron-ore.
– It is used in the manufacturing of ferro alloys.The manganese deposits are mainly found in the rock of Dharwar system. It’s statewise distribution is
– Odisha It is the largest manganese producer in the country. Most of the manganese mines are located in central part of the iron-ore belt in the state. The mines are located in the districts of Bonai, Kendujhar,Sundergarh, Gangpur, Koraput, Kalahandi and Bolangir.
– Karnataka Dharwar, Bellary, Belgaum (Belagavi),North Canara, Chikkmagaluru, Shivamogga, Chitradurg and Tumakuru are districts having major manganese mines.
– Madhya Pradesh Most of the manganese mines in Madhya Pradesh are located in the belt of Balaghat- Chhindwara-Nimar-Mandla and Jhabua districts.
– Maharashtra In Maharashtra manganese mines are situated away from iron and steel plants. The main mines are located in the districts of Bhandara, Nagpur and Ratnagiri.
Other manganese producing states are Telangana, Goa and Jharkhand.

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