Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Please refer to below Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context. These questions and answers have been prepared by expert Class 12 Geography teachers based on the latest NCERT Book for Class 12 Geography and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. We have provided Class 12 Geography exam questions for all chapters in your textbooks. You will be able to easily learn problems and solutions which are expected to come in the upcoming class tests and exams for standard 10th.
Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Class 12 Geography Exam Question
All questions and answers provided below for Exam Question Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context are very important and should be revised daily.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Explain the main aims of Bharmaur Tribal Area Development plan.
Answer. The main aims of Bharmaur Tribal Area Development Plan were
– Improving the quality of life of the Gaddis.
– Narrowing the gap in the level of development between Bharmaur and other districts of Himachal Pradesh.
– The highest priority was on development of transport and communication, agriculture and allied activities as well as social and community services.
– To utilise local resources in the efficient manner.
– To create new opportunities for the people.
Question. Point out some salient features of Hill Area Development Programme.
Answer. Features of Hill Area Development Programme are
– It was started in Fifth Five Year Plan and in the begining it covered 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttarakhand, Mikir hills and North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjeeling district of West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu.
– Development of horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry and small scale and village industry were the main objectives of the programme through which efficient use of local resources may become possible.
– National Committee on the Development of Backward Area recommended in 1981 that all the hill areas having a height above 600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as backward hill areas.
Question. How did the concept of sustainable development evolved. What are the aims of sustainable development?
Answer. The concept of sustainable development evolved or emerged in Western world in 1960 because of undesirable effects of industrial development on the environment.The aims of sustainable development are
– It aims to take care of economic, social and ecological spheres of development during the present times as well as conserve all the resources in such a manner that these can be retained for future generations.
– It takes into account the development of whole humankind which have a common future. It is trying to create harmony between development and environment.
Question. What is World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED)? How it defined the idea of sustainable development?
Answer. The Brund Hand Commission was formerly known as the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). It was established by the United Nation (UN) in
1983, when the world community raised concerns on the environmental issues.
The WCED was headed by the Norwegian Prime Minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland. The commission gave its report entitled ‘Our Common Future’ in 1987, also known as Brundtland report.
In Brundtland report, ‘Sustainable Development’ was defined as ‘‘A development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’’
Question. Write in brief about the physical setting of Bharmaur region.
Answer. Bharmaur region lies between 32° 11′ N and 32° 41′ N latitudes and 76° 22′ E and 76° 53′ E longitudes. Spread over an area of about 1818 sq km, the region mostly lies
between an altitude of 1500 m to 3700 m above the mean sea level.
This region is popularly known as the homeland of Gaddis (a tribal community) and is surrounded by lofty mountains on all sides.It has Pir Panjal Range in the North and Dhaula Dhar
Range in the South. In the East, the extension of Dhaula Dhar Range converges with Pir Panjal near Rohtang pass.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. Development is a multi-dimensional concept and signifies the positive, irreversible transformation of the economy, society and environment. Support the statement with suitable arguments from India.
Answer. Development is a multi-dimensional and dynamic concept as it signifies positive and irreversible transformation of the economy, society and the environment. It refers to qualitative change in the life of an individual, e.g. increasing literacy, longivity etc.
In economic sphere, creating resources, technological developments such as industries etc. are irreversible in nature. Earlier, development was measured by only the economic growth. Later, the development started including equity and redistribution along with economic growth. Later, it was realised that development cannot be restricted to only the economic sphere. It must include well being of the people, improving their living standards, education, health, political and civil rights etc.
In the case of India, when it was realised that regional imbalances are getting more noticeable, the Planning Commission introduced the ‘target area’ and target group approaches to planning that aimed at removing regional disparities that have occured due to development. So, area specific plans such as Hill Area Development Programme, Drought Prone Area Development Programme etc were launched to make development more balanced.
Question. Describe five main points of the integrated tribal development project implemented in Bharmaur region.
Answer. Five main points of the integrated tribal development project implemented in Bharmaur region are
(i) Improving the quality of life of the Gaddis and narrowing the gap in the level of development between Bharmaur and other districts of Himachal Pradesh.
(ii) The highest priority was on development of transport and communications, agriculture and allied activities as well as social and community services.
(iii) Improvement in the basic infrastructure of health care facilities, potable water supply, schools, transport and communication, training, marketing, credit and electricity supply, e.g. vill ages located along the river Ravi in Holi and Khani areas are main beneficiaries of infrastructural development.
(iv) Employment generation through agricultural allied activities like horticulture, animal husbandry and cottage industry.
(v) The Gaddis had traditionally subsistence agriculture cum-pastorol economy, later on during the last three decades of twentieth century, pulses and other cash crops became one of the main crops of this region.
Question. ‘‘Hill Area Development Programmes in India were drawn keeping in view their topographical, ecological, social and economic conditions.’’ Support this statement with suitable explanation.
Answer. Yes, it is true that Hill Area Development Programmes in India were drawn keeping in view their topographical, ecological, social and economic conditions because the main
objectives of these programmes were to develop horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry,poultry, forestry, small scale and village industry. By this, efficient use of local resources may become possible.
National Commitee on the Development of Backward Area (1981) set a criterion that the hill areas having a height above 600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as backward hill areas. The programme covered all the hilly districts of Uttar Pradesh (present Uttarakhand),Mikir hill and North hills of Assam, Darjeeling district ofWest Bengal and
Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu.
In drawing up the plans for the region, ecological elements were kept in mind. The aim of plan was to harness local resources without environmental degradation. In the regard deforestation was prohibited and pollution of different type was discharged.
Along with economic, topographical and ecological sphere,social sphere was also given due attention in implementation of the plan. The objective of plan was to promote marginalised and socially backward classes.
Question. Suppose you are given the power to modify the planning process. How would you use this power wisely and what would be your plan? Explain with reason.
Answer. If I get power to modify the present planning process, I would broaden the planning process by adding some important concepts such as equity, sustainability and empowerment
– Equity It means providing equal access to opportunities to everybody. The opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and caste. I will promote the concept of inclusive development through participation and everyone will be benefitted by development. With this measure persisting social inequality can be reduced.
– Sustainability It refers to continuity in the availability of opportunities. This means that each generation must have the same opportunities, therefore, we must use our environmental, financial and human resources in such a way that our future generations are not deprived of these opportunities. Sustainability is multidimensional in nature i.e. economic, social and ecological.
– Empowerment It refers to have power to make choices. Such power comes from increasing freedom and capability. Good governance and people oriented policies are required to empower people. The empowerment of social and economically disadvantaged groups are of special importance.