Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

Please refer to below Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems. These questions and answers have been prepared by expert Class 12 Geography teachers based on the latest NCERT Book for Class 12 Geography and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. We have provided Class 12 Geography exam questions for all chapters in your textbooks. You will be able to easily learn problems and solutions which are expected to come in the upcoming class tests and exams for standard 10th.

Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Class 12 Geography Exam Question

All questions and answers provided below for Exam Question Class 12 Geography Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. State the main pollutants that are involved in water pollution.
Answer. Main pollutants which are involved in water pollution are
– Odour, dissolved and suspended solids discharged by industries.
– Ammonia and urea discharged by agricultural activities.
– Nitrate and nitrites caused by industrial activities.
– Chloride, fluoride, carbonates oil and grease discharged by industries.
– Insecticide and pesticide residue discharged by agricultural activities.
– Tannin, coliform MPM (bacterial count) sulphates and sulphides.
– Heavy metals e.g., lead, arsenic, mercury, manganese discharged by industries which disturbs aquatic life badly.
– Radioactive substances discharged by thermal and atomic power plants.

Question. Why is the urban waste disposal a serious problem in India? Explain any three problems. 
Or Analyse three problems arising as a result of urban waste disposal. 
Answer. Three major problems associated with urban waste disposal in India are
(i) Solid wastes are threat to human health and can cause various diseases. It creates foul smell and it harbours flies and rodents that can cause typhoid, diphtheria, diarrhoea, malaria, cholera and other diseases.
(ii) Solid waste can create inconvenience rapidly if they are not properly handled. Pollutants can spread through rainwater or wind and can cause further problems.
(iii) Industrial solid waste can cause water pollution if it dumped into water bodies. Rivers in which untreated sewage is dumped also results into various health problems.

Question.  How do human beings pollute the water through industrial and agricultural activities? 
Or How do industries pollute India’s water bodies? Explain with examples. 
Answer. Human beings pollute India’s water bodies through
industrial and agricultural activities in the following ways
– Wastewater, poisonous gases, chemical residuals, numerous heavy metals, nitrate and nitrites, chloride,flourides, insecticides, pesticides etc. from industries contribute to water pollution.
– Not all industries have treatment facilities for industrial affluents. Small scale industries cannot afford high investments in pollution control equipment. Thus, these industries release untreated wastewater into the rivers which pollutes them.
– Various type of chemicals that are used in modern agriculture are also pollution generating compounds.
For example, inorganic fertilisers, herbicides, etc. These chemicals also infiltrate the soil to reach the groundwater.

Question. The Ganga and Yamuna rivers are among the most polluted rivers in India. State the sources of pollution of these rivers and also mention their polluted stretches.
Answer. The Ganga and Yamuna rivers are among the most polluted rivers in India.
Sources of pollution of Ganga river are
– Industrial pollution from towns like Kanpur.
– Domestic wastes from urban centres.
– Dumping of carcasses (dead body) in the river.Polluted Stretches of the Ganga River Downstream of Kanpur, downstream of Varanasi, Farakka Barrage.Sources of pollution in the Yamuna river are
– Extraction of water by Haryana and Uttar Pradesh for irrigation.
– Agricultural runoff resulting in high levels of micro pollutants into the Yamuna.
– Domestic and industrial waste of Delhi flowing into the river.Polluted Stretches of the Yamuna River Delhi to confluence with Chambal, Mathura and Agra.

Question. How is environmental pollution caused? Mention the four types of pollution responsible for the environmental degradation. 
Answer. Pollution of environment is caused by the release of unwanted substances from waste products of human activities. Pollution of environment is the introduction of pollutants that can cause damage to environment and harm to humans or other living species. It is the addition of an undesirable substance or form of energy to the environment at a rate faster than the environment can accommodate it by dispersion, breakdown, recycling etc.
The four types of pollution which are responsible for the environmental degradation are
(i) Water pollution (ii) Air pollution
(iii) Land pollution (iv) Noise pollution

Long Answer Type Questions

Question. How can we control noise pollution? Suggest some measures.
Answer. Noise pollution can be effectively controlled in the following ways
– Suppression of Noise at Source This is possible if working methods are improved by
— Designing and fabricating quieter machines to replace the noisy ones.
— Proper lubrication and better maintenance of machines.
— Installing noisy machines in sound proof chambers.
— Covering noise producing machine parts with sound absorbing materials to check noise pollution.
— Using silencers to control noise from automobiles, ducts, exhausts etc.
– Planting of Trees Planting green trees and shrubs along roads, hospitals, educational institutions, etc. help in noise reduction to a considerable extent.
– Legislative Measures Strict legislative measures need to be enforced to control the noise pollution such as
— Minimum use of loudspeakers and amplifiers especially near silent zones.
— Banning pressure horns in automobiles.
— Framing a separate Noise Pollution Act.
– Strict Enforcement The government agencies should strictly enforce the law to curb noise pollution and impose penalties for violation. Apart from these measures, ear plugs, ear muffs, etc can be provided to reduce exposure to noise pollution.

Question. What is noise pollution? Explain any four sources of noise. 
Or Describe three main sources of noise pollution in India.
Answer. Noise pollution refers to a noise that causes a condition which is unbearable and uncomfortable to human beings.
The sources of noise pollution are
(i) Factories, mechanised construction and demolition works, aircrafts, automobiles loudspeaker, siren, etc.
(ii) Noise produced by traffic is a major source of noise pollution. It creates a huge inconvenience to the people. Intensity and nature of noise made by traffic is dependent on various factors such as type of vehicle, (aircraft, train, etc.) condition of road and condition of vehicle (in case of automobiles).
(iii) In sea traffic, the noise pollution is limited to the harbour because of loading and unloading activities of containers.
(iv) Noise pollution from industries is also a serious problem, but its intensity varies because of some factors such as types of industry, types of machines and tools, etc.

Question. Describe the problem of slums in India. 
Or How do slums develop in India? Explain any four miserable conditions of the residents of slums areas.
Answer. Slums are those area/colonies which develop when migrants were forced to migrate from the rural areas to urban areas/centres in search of livelihood but due to high rent and high cost of land, they could not afford proper housing. Thus, they are forced to live in slums. Problems of slums in India are
– Slums are environmentally incompatible and degraded areas.
– Slums have dilapidated (broken-down) houses where people are forced to live due to poverty or lesser income.
– People of slums face poor hygenic conditions. Thus, they are prone to many diseases and illness.
– The houses in slums have poor ventilation. So, people residing there face suffocation problems.
– Slums have substandard housing or illegal and inadequate building structures.
– Slums are overcrowed having narrow street pattern which is prone to serious hazards, e.g. Fire hazards because of congested spaces, which increase the chances of its spread.
– Slums lack in basic amenities like drinking water, light and toilet facilities.
– They are marked by unregulated drainage system and open defecation.
– Besides this, most of the slum dwellers engage in low-paid, high risk-prone unorganised sectors of the urban economy. Because of such situation they are undernourished, prone to different types of illness.
– Due to poverty, slum dwellers are unable to give proper education to their children.
– Poverty has also made slum people vulnerable to drug abuse, alcoholism, crime, vandalism, escapism, apathy and ultimately social exclusion.

Exam Question for Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

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